Introductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
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For undergraduate courses in Applied Thermodynamics.
Written in a style and at a level that is accessible to undergraduates, this introduction to applied thermodynamics covers the first and second law for process applications, molecular concepts, equations of state, activity models, and reaction equilibria—all in a tightly integrated, pedagogical progression of topics. It addresses the on-going evolution in applied thermodynamics and computer technology, and integrates several widely-accessible computational tools to allow exploration of model behavior— e.g., programs for HP and TI calculators, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and PC's. Includes background and comparison on many of the popular thermodynamic models.
Includes extensive coverage of process simulation models
A practical, up-to-date introduction to applied thermodynamics
Introductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics will help students master the fundamentals of applied thermodynamics as practiced today: with a molecular perspective and extensive use of process simulation.
The book begins by introducing energy and entropy balances that are at the heart of processing engineering calculations. Understand the ideal gas law and thermodynamic tables. Learn important equation of state techniques for calculating thermodynamic properties including virial and cubic equations of state and the underlying theories behind them. Coverage includes:
- Closed systems, open systems, and steady-state systems
- Process thermodynamics, including the Carnot and Rankine cycles; Rankine modifications, refrigeration, liquefaction, internal combustion and fluid-flow
- Departure functions and the role of enthalpy and entropy properties
- Generalizing classical thermodynamics to any fluid
- Fluid phase equilibria in mixtures, including multicomponent systems, fugacities, activity models, and liquid-liquid phase equlibria
- Comparisons of thermodynamic models that help readers choose the most meaningful approach to each problem
Introductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics presents extensive practical examples, especially in its coverage of non-ideal mixtures, which addresses water contamination via hydrocarbons, polymer blending/recycling, oxygenated fuels and other contemporary issues.
Throughout, the book makes use of models and equations that may be worked with low-cost calculators and spreadsheet software. Useful appendices include a glossary; problem-solving strategies and software; relevant basic mathematics; and pure component properties.
I. FIRST AND SECOND LAWS.1. Introduction.
2. The Energy Balance.
4. Thermodynamics of Processes.
II. GENERALIZED ANALYSIS OF FLUID PROPERTIES.5. Classical Thermodynamics — Generalization to Any Fluid.
6. Engineering Equations of State for PVT Properties.
7. Departure Functions.
8. Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Fluid.
III. FLUID PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN MIXTURES.9. Introduction to Multicomponent Systems.
10. Phase Equilibria in Mixtures by an Equation of State.
11. Activity Models.
12. Liquid-Liquid Phase Equilibria.
13. Special Topics.
- Phase Behavior. - Solid-Liquid Equilibrium. - Residue Curves.
IV. REACTING SYSTEMS.14. Reacting Systems.
15. Molecular Association and Solvation.
Appendix A. Glossary.
Appendix B. Summary of Computer Programs.
Appendix C. Mathematics.
Appendix D. Strategy for Solving VLE Problems.
Appendix E. Models for Process Simulators.
Appendix F. Pure Component Properties.
- An accessible, relaxed writing style.
- Tightly integrated and spiraled topics: —Revisits examples from early chapters
- as new concepts are introduced.
- —Unit I presents the energy and entropy balances by clearly showing the simplifications of the balances in examples, facilitating a mastery of balance concepts.
- —Unit II generalizes the calculation of thermodynamic properties and process balances via PVT properties and equations of state, and offers a molecular perspective of equation of state development.
- —Unit III characterizes mixture behavior with an emphasis on phase equilibria using Raoult's law, equations of state, and modified Raoult's law. A molecular perspective emphasizes the relationships between modeling approaches.
- —Unit IV presents reaction equilibria using reaction coordinate and Gibbs energy minimization methodologies.
- A logical presentation of energy and entropy balance methodologies—With hints for application.
- Early development of the first and second law balances—Quickly develops students' ability and confidence in application of these with simple calculational proceduresbefore introducing the equation of state.
- Sufficient coverage of special topics—Provides a broad introduction—without becoming overwhelming.
- Excel spreadsheets, TI85, and HP48 calculator programs
- —For thermodynamic modeling summarized in appendices. Software can be downloaded from the internet.
- —Calculator programs—For vapor pressure thermodynamic properties via the Peng-Robinson equation, vapor K-ratios, and bubble pressures of mixtures, and van Laar and UNIFAC activity coefficients, as well as several other utility programs.
- —Spreadsheets for Microsoft Excel, which is widely available, permits viewing of intermediate calculations, and is easy to program.
- —Compiled menu-driven programs necessary for more advanced topics—e.g., thermodynamic mixture properties, and phase behavior. For an associating system, such as an alcohol, provides the ESD equation of state.
- A molecular perspective.
Helps students understand the origin of thermodynamic models and the relationships between models. Ex.___
- Solid background in the development of entropy and fugacity
- —The topics most frequently confused at the undergraduate level.
- —Energy and entropy—Develops these approaches first using the gas law or thermodynamic tables; then revisits the topics after developing equation of state techniques for thermodynamic properties. Provides guidelines to help students decide whether steady-state or unsteady-state balances are appropriate for a given problem solution.
- —Fugacity—Focuses on the need for a property which is a natural function of T and P, and stresses how it is related to departure functions. Provides tables and diagrams to show the interrelations between fugacity coefficients, activity coefficients, ideal gases, ideal solutions, and real solutions.
- Examples—Illustrates important points. In some cases, derivations and important equations are within an example because the equations are model specific (e.g. ideal gas law). Examples are often cross-referenced, and are listed in the table of contents.
- Example problems—Introduces application areas—e.g., steam distillation, polymer blending/ recycling, oxygenated fuels, emissions, residue curve analysis, and hydrogen bonding fluids.
- Clearly marked equations—Clearly marks equations using the ideal gas law or assuming a temperature independent of capacity.
- Boxed equations and statements—Uses boxes to highlight important statements and equations. Some boxes highlight mathematical definitions of important intermediate results that might be useful for homework problems.
- Many margin notes—Highlights important points or useful equations; and the availability of a calculator program, Excel spreadsheet, or compiled program to assist in calculations.