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HP-UX 11i Internals

HP-UX 11i Internals

Chris Cooper, Chris Moore

Feb 2004, Hardback, 432 pages
ISBN13: 9780130328618
ISBN10: 0130328618
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HP-UX Internals introduces readers to the "under the hood" aspects of the HP-UX operating system. The book illustrates the kernel data structures and algorithms used to provide process/thread scheduling, I/O control and system resource management. Both hardware dependent and hardware independent data structures are examined and explained. The topics covered help readers approach system administration, tuning and troubleshooting from a more informed perspective, and challenge them to make more effective use of their HP-UX systems. The material is focused on the HP-UX 11i (version 1.0) release of the HP-UX operating system, but includes some historic aspects of its development to establish and understanding of its current incarnation.

HP-UX 11i Internals

Chris CooperChris Moore

  • Invaluable information for optimizing HP-UX performance, reliability, and efficiency
  • Find out how to approach system administration, tuning, and troubleshooting from a more informed perspective
  • For every HP-UX sysadmin, programmer, and performance specialist

HP Professional Books

HP-UX 11i Internals

HP-UX under the hood: practical insight for optimization and troubleshooting

To maximize the performance, efficiency, and reliability of your HP-UX sysem, you need to know what's going on under the hood. HP-UX 11i Internals goes beyond generic UNIX internals, showing exactly how HP-UX works in PA-RISC environments.

HP experts Cooper and Moore systematically illuminate HP-UX kernel data structures and algorithms for memory management, process and thread scheduling, I/O control, files and file systems, resource management, and more. They focus on HP-UX 11i, while also offering valuable insight for those using earlier versions.

  • PA-RISC architecture: register set, virtual memory, key instructions, and procedure calling conventions
  • HP-UX kernel organization: hardware-dependent and independent data structures
  • Process and thread management: proc tables, memory management, scheduling, and the complete process/thread lifecycle
  • System-wide memory resources: allocation and mapping to physical memory
  • HP-UX paging and swapping
  • Files and filesystems: traditional UNIX filesystems, HFS, VFS, and dynamic buffer cache
  • I/O and device management: addressing, DMA, interrupts, device files, I/O configuration, device driver assignments, and I/O request pathways
  • Logical Volume Management (LVM): abstracting physical disks from the disk I/O system
  • HP-UX multiprocessing: challenges, data structures, and interfaces
  • Kernel communication services: semaphores, message queues, shared memory, signals, and the kernel "callout" system
  • Signaling in complex threaded environments
  • System initialization, from vmunix to init: running HP-UX on diverse platforms

Whether you administer HP-UX, tune it, troubleshoot it, or write kernel modules for it, you'll find HP-UX 11i Internals indispensable.

U.S. $59.99 Canada $90.99


Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Hewlett-Packard(R) Professional Books

A Prentice Hall Title

ISBN: 0-13-032861-8



List of Figures.

List of Tables.

List of Listings.

1. PA-RISC 2.0 Architecture.
RISC Architecture. Hardware Modules. Registers. Virtual Memory Support. Address Translation. Interruptions. Summary.

2. Procedure Calling Conventions.
Register Usage. PA-RISC Instructions. Procedure Call Model. Procedure Return Model. Stack Usage. Summary.

3. The Kernel: Basic Organization.
A Generic Overview. All I/O Is File I/O. Abstraction Layers. Some Generic Kernel Techniques. The HP-UX Kernel Overview. Fundamental Kernel Data Structures: A First Pass. Kernel Process Tables. The Kernel File System Tables. The Kernel Input/Output Tables. Drivers and Switch Tables. Summary.

4. Programs, Processes, and Threads.
The Players. A Process and Its Threads. Threading Models and HP-UX. The System Call Interface. Summary.

5. Process and Thread Management from the Process's Viewpoint.
A Process and Its Resources. The proc Table. The kthread Table. The Process's Logical View. Memory Windows. Building the Logical map. Process/Thread Scheduling. Run Queues. Summary.

6. Managing Memory.
Types of Memory. The System's Virtual Address Space. Virtual-to-Physical Page Tables. The Kernel View: The Hashtable. Shared Objects. The b-tree. broot, bnodes, and chunks. Page Lists. Connecting the Kernel View to the Process View. Keeping Track of Free Physical Page Frames. Variable Page Size. Physical Memory Allocator at HP-UX 11.0. Summary.

7. The HP-UX Paging System.
Pages on Demand. Monitoring Free Memory. A Thief in the Night: vhand. Reservation Versus Allocation. Pseudo-Swap. Device Swap. File System Swap. Swap Priority. Tracking swap in the Kernel Structures. Summary.

8. Files and File Systems.
File System Concepts. The New and Improved UNIX File System. The Kernel View of File Systems. Summary.

9. The Process Life Cycle, Cradle to Grave.
The Birth of a Process. A Historic Look at the fork() Call. The fork1() Kernel Routine. Process and Thread States: Idle Hands. Process Identity Crisis: The exec() System Call. Shared Memory Objects Revisited. The exit() System Call Mechanics. Summary.

10. I/O and Device Management.
PA-RISC I/O Architecture. I/O Framework. I/O Odds and Ends. Summary.

11. The Logical Volume Manager.
LVM Design Concept. Disk-Resident Data Structures. LVM: The Kernel View. Summary.

12. Multiprocessing and HP-UX.
Hardware Overview. Multiprocessing Data Structures. Synchronization. Summary.

13. Kernel Services.
The Callout Table. Kernel Memory Allocation. Summary.

14. Signals.
Signal Data Structures. Signal Anticipation. Signal Delivery. Signal Recognition. Signal Handler Launch. Summary.

15. System Initialization.
ISL: The Initial System Loader. HPUXBOOT: The Secondary Loader. Real-Mode Initialization. Virtual Mode Initialization. Summary.

16. Tools Overview.
adb. q4. Summary.


CHRIS COOPER, HP Senior Education Consultant, is a 19-year veteran with Hewlett-Packard Education Services. He has spent most of his HP career developing and delivering courses on programming, system administration, O/S internals, and networking. He has also served as a solution architect and consultant. CHRIS MOORE, Expert Center Engineer for HP's Global Solutions Engineering team, specializes in analyzing system core dumps and identifying the causes of failures. He teaches classes on First Pass Dump Analysis inside and outside HP.