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Mechatronics

Mechatronics

Electronic Control Systems in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering
7th Edition

W. Bolton

Dec 2018, Paperback, 688 pages
ISBN13: 9781292250977
ISBN10: 1292250976
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The integration of electronic engineering, mechanical engineering, control and computer engineering – Mechatronics – lies at the heart of the innumerable gadgets, processes and technology without which modern life would seem impossible. From auto-focus cameras to car engine management systems, and from state-of-the-art robots to the humble washing machine, Mechatronics has a hand in them all.

Preface xi
Acknowledgements xiii
I. Introduction 1
1. Introducing mechatronics 3
Chapter objectives 3
1.1 What is mechatronics? 3
1.2 The design process 5
1.3 Systems 6
1.4 Measurement systems 8
1.5 Control systems 9
1.6 Programmable logic controller 21
1.7 Examples of mechatronic systems 22
Summary 26
Problems 27
II. Sensors and signal conditioning 29
2. Sensors and transducers 31
Chapter objectives 31
2.1 Sensors and transducers 31
2.2 Performance terminology 32
2.3 Displacement, position and proximity 37
2.4 Velocity and motion 54
2.5 Force 57
2.6 Fluid pressure 57
2.7 Liquid flow 61
2.8 Liquid level 62
2.9 Temperature 63
2.10 Light sensors 69
2.11 Selection of sensors 70
2.12 Inputting data by switches 71
Summary 74
Problems 75
3. Signal conditioning 78
Chapter objectives 78
3.1 Signal conditioning 78
3.2 The operational amplifier 79
3.3 Protection 90
3.4 Filtering 91
3.5 Wheatstone bridge 92
3.6 Pulse modulation 97
3.7 Problems with signals 98
3.8 Power transfer 100
Summary 101
Problems 101
4. Digital signals 103
Chapter objectives 103
4.1 Digital signals 103
4.2 Analogue and digital signals 103
4.3 Digital-to-analogue and analogue-to-digital
converters 107
4.4 Multiplexers 113
4.5 Data acquisition 114
4.6 Digital signal processing 116
4.7 Digital signal communications 118
Summary 119
Problems 120
5. Digital logic 121
Chapter objectives 121
5.1 Digital logic 121
5.2 Logic gates 122
5.3 Applications of logic gates 130
5.4 Sequential logic 135
Summary 143
Problems 143
6. Data presentation systems 146
Chapter objectives 146
6.1 Displays 146
6.2 Data presentation elements 147
6.3 Magnetic recording 152
6.4 Optical recording 157
6.5 Displays 157
6.6 Data acquisition systems 162
6.7 Measurement systems 166
6.8 Testing and calibration 169
Summary 171
Problems 172
III. Actuation 175
7. Pneumatic and hydraulic actuation
systems 177
Chapter objectives 177
7.1 Actuation systems 177
7.2 Pneumatic and hydraulic systems 177
7.3 Directional control valves 181
7.4 Pressure control valves 186
7.5 Cylinders 188
7.6 Servo and proportional control valves 192
7.7 Process control valves 193
Summary 198
Problems 198
8. Mechanical actuation systems 201
Chapter objectives 201
8.1 Mechanical systems 201
8.2 Types of motion 202
8.3 Kinematic chains 204
8.4 Cams 208
8.5 Gears 210
8.6 Ratchet and pawl 214
8.7 Belt and chain drives 214
8.8 Bearings 216
8.9 Electro-mechanical linear actuators 218
Summary 219
Problems 220
9. Electrical actuation systems 222
Chapter objectives 222
9.1 Electrical systems 222
9.2 Mechanical switches 222
9.3 Solid-state switches 224
9.4 Solenoids 231
9.5 Direct current motors 232
9.6 Alternating current motors 241
9.7 Stepper motors 243
9.8 Direct current servomotors 250
9.9 Motor selection 251
Summary 255
Problems 255
IV. Microprocessor systems 257
10. Microprocessors and microcontrollers 259
Chapter objectives 259
10.1 Control 259
10.2 Microprocessor systems 259
10.3 Microcontrollers 270
10.4 Applications 296
10.5 Programming 297
Summary 300
Problems 300
11. Assembly language 301
Chapter objectives 301
11.1 Languages 301
11.2 Assembly language programs 302
11.3 Instruction sets 304
11.4 Subroutines 317
11.5 Look-up tables 321
11.6 Embedded systems 324
Summary 327
Problems 328
12. C language 329
Chapter objectives 329
12.1 Why C? 329
12.2 Program structure 329
12.3 Branches and loops 336
12.4 Arrays 340
12.5 Pointers 342
12.6 Program development 343
12.7 Examples of programs 345
12.8 Arduino programs 348
Summary 352
Problems 352
13. Input/output systems 354
Chapter objectives 354
13.1 Interfacing 354
13.2 Input/output addressing 355
13.3 Interface requirements 357
13.4 Peripheral interface adapters 364
13.5 Serial communications interface 369
13.6 Examples of interfacing 372
Summary 380
Problems 380
14. Programmable logic controllers 382
Chapter objectives 382
14.1 Programmable logic controller 382
14.2 Basic PLC structure 382
14.3 Input/output processing 386
14.4 Ladder programming 387
14.5 Instruction lists 391
14.6 Latching and internal relays 394
14.7 Sequencing 396
14.8 Timers and counters 397
14.9 Shift registers 400
14.10 Master and jump controls 401
14.11 Data handling 402
14.12 Analogue input/output 404
Summary 406
Problems 407
15. Communication systems 409
Chapter objectives 409
15.1 Digital communications 409
15.2 Centralised, hierarchical and distributed control 409
15.3 Networks 412
15.4 Protocols 414
15.5 Open Systems Interconnection communication
model 415
15.6 Serial communication interfaces 418
15.7 Parallel communication interfaces 427
15.8 Wireless communications 430
Summary 431
Problems 432
16. Fault finding 433
Chapter objectives 433
16.1 Fault-detection techniques 433
16.2 Watchdog timer 434
16.3 Parity and error coding checks 435
16.4 Common hardware faults 437
16.5 Microprocessor systems 438
16.6 Evaluation and simulation 441
16.7 PLC systems 442
Summary 445
Problems 445
V. System models 447
17. Basic system models 449
Chapter objectives 449
17.1 Mathematical models 449
17.2 Mechanical system building blocks 450
17.3 Electrical system building blocks 458
17.4 Fluid system building blocks 462
17.5 Thermal system building blocks 469
Summary 472
Problems 473
18. System models 475
Chapter objectives 475
18.1 Engineering systems 475
18.2 Rotational–translational systems 475
18.3 Electromechanical systems 476
18.4 Linearity 479
18.5 Hydraulic–mechanical systems 481
Summary 484
Problems 484
19. Dynamic responses of systems 485
Chapter objectives 485
19.1 Modelling dynamic systems 485
19.2 Terminology 486
19.3 First-order systems 488
19.4 Second-order systems 494
19.5 Performance measures for second-order systems 501
19.6 System identification 504
Summary 505
Problems 506
20. System transfer functions 509
Chapter objectives 509
20.1 The transfer function 509
20.2 First-order systems 512
20.3 Second-order systems 514
20.4 Systems in series 516
20.5 Systems with feedback loops 517
20.6 Effect of pole location on transient response 519
Summary 522
Problems 522
21. Frequency response 524
Chapter objectives 524
21.1 Sinusoidal input 524
21.2 Phasors 525
21.3 Frequency response 527
21.4 Bode plots 530
21.5 Performance specifications 539
21.6 Stability 541
Summary 543
Problems 544
22. Closed-loop controllers 546
Chapter objectives 546
22.1 Control processes 546
22.2 Two-step or on/off mode 548
22.3 Proportional mode of control 550
22.4 Integral mode of control 552
22.5 Derivative mode of control 555
22.6 PID controller 557
22.7 Digital control systems 559
22.8 Controller tuning 564
22.9 Velocity control 566
22.10 Adaptive control 567
Summary 569
Problems 569
23. Artificial intelligence 571
Chapter objectives 571
23.1 What is meant by artificial intelligence? 571
23.2 Perception and cognition 572
23.3 Fuzzy logic 575
Summary 585
Problems 586
VI. Conclusion 587
24. Mechatronic systems 589
Chapter objectives 589
24.1 Mechatronic systems 589
24.2 Robotics 600
24.3 Case studies 606
Summary 625
Problems 625
Research assignments 625
Design assignments 625
Appendices 627
A The Laplace transform 629
A.1 The Laplace transform 629
A.2 Unit steps and impulses 630
A.3 Standard Laplace transforms 632
A.4 The inverse transform 636
Problems 638
B Number systems 639
B.1 Number systems 639
B.2 Binary mathematics 640
B.3 Floating numbers 643
B.4 Gray code 643
Problems 644
C Boolean algebra 645
C.1 Laws of Boolean algebra 645
C.2 De Morgan’s laws 646
C.3 Boolean function generation from truth tables 647
C.4 Karnaugh maps 649
Problems 652
Answers 654
Index 669

This book will:

  • aid acquisition of the broad mix of skills in mechanical engineering, electronics and computing necessary to comprehend and design mechatronics systems.
  • improve the interdisciplinary communication necessary to operate successfully in mechatronics.
  • contribute to an increased capability in the design of mechatronic systems

Bill Bolton was formerly Consultant to the Further Education Unit and Head of Research and Development and Monitoring at BTEC. He has also been a UNESCO consultant and is the author of many successful engineering textbooks.