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IPv6 Fundamentals

IPv6 Fundamentals

A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6
2nd Edition

Rick Graziani

Jun 2017, Paperback, 688 pages
ISBN13: 9781587144776
ISBN10: 1587144778
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Organizations are increasingly transitioning to IPv6, the next generation protocol for defining how devices of all kinds communicate over networks. Now fully updated, IPv6 Fundamentals offers a thorough, friendly, and easy-to-understand introduction to the knowledge and skills you need to deploy and operate IPv6 networks.


Leading networking instructor Rick Graziani explains all the basics simply and clearly, step-by-step, providing all the details you’ll need to succeed. You’ll learn why IPv6 is necessary, how it was created, how it works, and how it has become the protocol of choice in environments ranging from cloud to mobile and IoT.


Graziani thoroughly introduces IPv6 addressing, configuration options, and routing protocols, including EIGRP for IPv6, and OSPFv3 (traditional configuration and with address families). Building on this coverage, he then includes more in-depth information involving these protocols and processes.


This edition contains a completely revamped discussion of deploying IPv6 in your network, including IPv6/IPv4 integration, dynamic address allocation, and understanding IPv6 from the perspective of the network and host. You’ll also find improved coverage of key topics such as Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC), DHCPv6, and the advantages of the solicited node multicast address.


Throughout, Graziani presents command syntax for Cisco IOS, Windows, Linux, and Mac OS, as well as many examples, diagrams, configuration tips, and updated links to white papers and official RFCs for even deeper understanding.


  • Learn how IPv6 supports modern networks encompassing the cloud, mobile, IoT, and gaming devices
  • Compare IPv6 with IPv4 to see what has changed and what hasn’t
  • Understand and represent IPv6 addresses for unicast, multicast, and anycast environments
  • Master all facets of dynamic IPv6 address allocation with SLAAC, stateless DHCPv6, and stateful DHCPv6
  • Understand all the features of deploying IPv6 addresses in the network including temporary addresses and the privacy extension
  • Improve operations by leveraging major enhancements built into ICMPv6 and ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol
  • Configure IPv6 addressing and Access Control Lists using a common topology
  • Implement routing of IPv6 packets via static routing, EIGRP for IPv6, and OSPFv3
  • Walk step-by-step through deploying IPv6 in existing networks, and coexisting with or transitioning from IPv4

Introduction xxv
Part I Introduction to IPv6 1
Chapter 1 Introduction to IPv6 3
IPv6 Is Here 3
Why Transition to IPv6? 5
IPv4 8
IPv4 Address Depletion 8
CIDR 11
NAT with Private Addresses 13
What About IPv5? 19
The Fascinating History of IPv6 19
Some Background 20
IPv4 Address Exhaustion and the Need for More International
Involvement 21
A Call for Proposals 22
A More IP Version of IPv6 23
IPv6: More Than Just Longer Addresses 24
IPv6 Myths 25
Transitioning to IPv6 26
Summary 28
Review Questions 28
References 29
Endnotes 29
RFCs 29
Websites 31
Chapter 2 IPv6 Primer 33
Hexadecimal Number System 34
IPv6 Address Types 37
Global Unicast Address (GUA) 37
Link-Local Unicast Address 37
Unspecified Address 38
Solicited-Node Multicast Address 38
Address Terminology 41
ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) 41
Neighbor Solicitation (NS) and Neighbor Advertisement (NA) Messages 42
Router Solicitation (RS) and Router Advertisement (RA) Messages 42
Dynamic Address Allocation 43
Summary 45
Review Questions 46
References 48
RFCs 48
Chapter 3 Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 49
Comparing the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers 49
The IPv4 and IPv6 Version Fields 51
IPv4 Internet Header Length (IHL) Field 51
IPv4 Type of Service (ToS) and IPv6 Traffic Class Fields 52
IPv6 Flow Label Field 54
IPv4 Total Length Field, IPv6 Payload Length Field, and IPv6 Jumbograms 54
IPv4 and IPv6 MTUs 56
IPv4 Fragmentation 57
IPv6 Fragmentation: IPv6 Source Only 58
IPv4 Protocol and IPv6 Next Header Fields 59
IPv4 Time to Live (TTL) and IPv6 Hop Limit Fields 62
Checksums: IPv4, TCP, and UDP 63
IPv4 and IPv6 Source Address and Destination Address Fields 65
IPv4 Options and Padding Fields, IPv6 Fixed Length 65
IPv6 over Ethernet 66
Packet Analysis Using Wireshark 66
Extension Headers 69
Hop-by-Hop Options Extension Header 72
Routing Extension Header 74
Fragment Extension Header 76
IPsec: AH and ESP Extension Headers 77
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Extension Header 79
Authentication Header (AH) Extension Header 81
Destination Options Extension Header 82
No Next Header 84
Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 at a Glance 84
Summary 86
Review Questions 86
References 86
RFCs 86
Websites 87
Part II IPv6 Addresses 89
Chapter 4 IPv6 Address Representation and Address Types 91
Representation of IPv6 Addresses 91
Rule 1: Omit Leading 0s 93
Rule 2: Omit All-0s Hextets 95
Combining Rule 1 and Rule 2 96
Prefix Length Notation 98
IPv6 Address Types 99
IPv6 Address Space 100
Unicast Addresses 103
Global Unicast Address 104
Link-Local Unicast Address 106
Loopback Addresses 109
Unspecified Addresses 109
Unique Local Addresses 110
IPv4 Embedded Address 114
Multicast Addresses 115
Anycast Addresses 118
Summary 119
Review Questions 121
References 122
Endnote 122
RFCs 122
Websites 123
Book 123
Chapter 5 Global Unicast Address 125
Structure of a Global Unicast Address 126
Global Routing Prefix 128
Subnet ID 129
Interface ID 129
Manual Configuration of a Global Unicast Address 130
Manual GUA Configuration for Cisco IOS 131
Manual GUA Configuration with EUI-64 for Cisco IOS 135
Manual GUA Configuration with IPv6 Unnumbered for Cisco IOS 137
Manual GUA Configuration for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS 137
Implementing Static Routing and Verifying Connectivity with Ping 141
Recognizing the Parts of a GUA Address and the 3—1—4 Rule 142
Examining Other Prefix Lengths 144
Subnetting IPv6 145
Extending the Subnet Prefix 148
Subnetting on a Nibble Boundary 149
Subnetting Within a Nibble 150
Subnetting /127 Point-to-Point Links 151
ipv6gen: An IPv6 Subnetting Tool 155
Prefix Allocation 156
Provider-Aggregatable (PA) and Provider-Independent (PI) Address
Space 158
General Prefix Option 160
Dynamic Addressing Methods with SLAAC and DHCPv6 162
Summary 162
Review Questions 163
References 164
Endnote 164
RFCs 164
Websites 165
Chapter 6 Link-Local Unicast Address 167
Structure of a Link-Local Unicast Address 169
Automatic Configuration of a Link-Local Address 170
EUI-64 Generated Interface ID 170
Randomly Generated Interface ID 175
Manual Configuration of a Link-Local Address 179
Link-Local Address and Duplicate Address Detection 182
Link-Local Addresses and Default Gateways 183
ipv6 enable: Isolated Link-Local Address 184
Pinging a Link-Local Address 186
Summary 189
Review Questions 190
References 191
RFCs 191
Chapter 7 Multicast Addresses 193
Scope 195
Multicast with Link-Local Scope Versus Link-Local Unicast
Addresses 197
Well-Known Multicast Addresses 198
Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 202
Mapping Unicast Address to Solicited-Node Multicast Address 204
Mapping to the Ethernet MAC Address 206
Verifying the Address Mappings on Cisco IOS, Windows, and Linux 210
Multiple Devices Using the Same Solicited-Node Multicast Address 212
One Solicited-Node Multicast Address for Multiple Unicast
Addresses 214
Multicast Listener Discovery 216
MLD Snooping 220
Summary 221
Review Questions 222
References 222
RFCs 222
Websites, Videos, and Books 223
Part III Dynamic IPv6 Addressing 225
Chapter 8 Basics of Dynamic Addressing in IPv6 227
Dynamic IPv4 Address Allocation: DHCPv4 227
Dynamic IPv6 Address Allocation 229
ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages 230
Router Advertisement Methods and the A, O, and M Flags 233
Method 1: Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) 235
Method 2: SLAAC with Stateless DHCPv6 237
Method 3: Stateful DHCPv6 238
DHCPv6 Services 240
DHCPv6 Terminology and Message Types 241
DHCPv6 Communications 245
Summary 248
Review Questions 249
References 250
RFCs 250
Website 250
Chapter 9 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) 251
The RA Message and SLAAC 252
On-Link Determination 258
Generating an Interface ID 260
Generating the Interface ID Using the EUI-64 Process 261
Privacy Extension for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 266
Privacy Extension and Generating Randomized Interface IDs 267
Privacy Extension and Temporary Addresses 268
Autoconfigured Address States and Lifetimes 270
Example: Autoconfigured Address States and Lifetimes 272
Router Advertisement Fields and Options 279
Examining the Router Advertisement with Wireshark 279
Modifying the Valid Lifetime and Preferred Lifetime in the RA
Message 282
Including the DNS Address in the Router Advertisement 282
Router Advertisement Configuration Options 284
Default Address Selection 288
Configuring the Router’s Interface as a SLAAC Client 290
Summary 290
Review Questions 292
References 294
RFCs 294
Websites 295
Other 295
Chapter 10 Stateless DHCPv6 297
SLAAC with Stateless DHCPv6 298
Implementing Stateless DHCPv6 300
Configuring the RA Message’s Other Configuration Flag 300
Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server 303
Verifying Stateless DHCPv6 on a Windows Client 304
Verifying the Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server 305
DHCPv6 Options 306
rapid-commit Option 306
Relay Agent Communications 308
Summary 312
Review Questions 313
References 314
RFCs 314
Websites 314
Chapter 11 Stateful DHCPv6 315
Stateful DHCPv6 Messages and Process 316
Implementing Stateful DHCPv6 317
Configuring the RA Message M Flag and A Flag 318
Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server 323
Verifying Stateful DHCPv6 on a Windows Client 326
Verifying the Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server 327
DHCPv6 Options 329
IPv6 Prefix Delegation Options for DHCPv6 329
Sample Configuration: Prefix Delegation with DHCPv6 331
Summary 340
Review Questions 341
References 343
RFCs 343
Websites 343
Part IV ICMPv6 and ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery 345
Chapter 12 ICMPv6 347
General Message Format 348
ICMP Error Messages 352
Destination Unreachable 352
Packet Too Big 355
Time Exceeded 357
Parameter Problem 360
ICMP Informational Messages 361
Echo Request and Echo Reply 361
Summary 368
Review Questions 369
References 371
RFCs 371
Chapter 13 ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery 373
Neighbor Discovery Options 374
Default Router and Prefix Determination 375
Router Solicitation Message 375
Router Advertisement Message 378
Address Resolution 384
The Address Resolution Process 385
Characteristics of the Neighbor Solicitation Message 388
Format of the Neighbor Solicitation Message 391
Format of the Neighbor Advertisement Message 393
Neighbor Cache 396
Destination Cache 401
Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) 402
Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD) 404
Redirect Message 405
Summary 407
Review Questions 408
References 411
RFCs 411
Part V Routing IPv6 413
Chapter 14 IPv6 Routing Table and Static Routes 415
Configuring a Router as an IPv6 Router 416
Understanding the IPv6 Routing Table 418
Codes: NDp and ND 420
Code: Connected 422
Code: Local 423
Configuring IPv6 Static Routes 424
Static Routes with a GUA Next-Hop Address 426
Static Routes with a Link-Local Next-Hop Address 427
Static Routes with Only an Exit Interface 428
Default Static Routes with Link-Local Next-Hop Addresses 429
Verifying IPv6 Static Routes 430
Summarizing IPv6 Routes 433
IPv6 Summary Static Route 435
CEF for IPv6 436
Summary 438
Review Questions 439
References 441
RFCs 441
Websites 441
Books 441
Chapter 15 EIGRP for IPv6 443
Comparing EIGRPv4 and EIGRPv6 444
Classic EIGRP for IPv6 446
Configuring Classic EIGRP for IPv6 447
Verifying Classic EIGRP for IPv6 450
EIGRP Named Mode for IPv6 456
Configuring EIGRP Named Mode for IPv6 457
Verifying EIGRP Named Mode for IPv6 464
Comparing EIGRP Named Mode for IPv4 and IPv6 468
Summary 470
Review Questions 472
References 473
RFC 473
Websites 473
Books 473
Chapter 16 OSPFv3 475
Comparing OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 476
Traditional OSPFv3 479
Configuring Traditional OSPFv3 480
Verifying Traditional OSPFv3 485
OSPFv3 with Address Families 492
Configuring OSPFv3 with AF 493
Verifying OSPFv3 with AF 499
Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv4 Island 507
Summary 509
Review Questions 511
References 513
RFCs 513
Websites 513
Books 513
Part VI Implementing IPv6 515
Chapter 17 Deploying IPv6 in the Network 517
IPv6 Address Plan Considerations 518
Encoding Information in the Subnet ID 521
VLAN-Mapped Subnet ID 523
IPv6 Address Plans 524
IPv6 VLANs 525
IPv6 First Hop Redundancy Protocols 529
ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery 530
HSRP and VRRP 533
GLBP 534
Selecting an FHRP 536
Dual Stack 536
IPv6 Address Format in URL Syntax 538
DNS 539
DNS Query and Response 543
Happy Eyeballs 545
IPv6 Access Control Lists 546
Configuring IPv6 ACLs 546
Transition Technologies 550
Translation with NAT64 551
Other Translation Techniques 559
Tunneling IPv6 560
Conclusion 566
Summary 566
Review Questions 568
References 570
RFCs 570
Websites 571
Appendixes
Appendix A Configuring NAT64 and IPv6 Tunnels 573
Appendix B IPv6 Command Quick Reference 601
Appendix C Answers to Review Questions 615
9781587144776, TOC, 5/10/2017

  • Takes students on a journey from the absolute basics of IPv6 to successful operation and implementation: explains everything, and leaves no confusing gaps in understanding
  • Uses a single consistent topology throughout, to promote comprehension
  • Written by one of the Cisco Networking Academy's most popular and experienced instructors, reflecting extensive classroom experience

Rick Graziani has been an instructor of computer networking and computer science courses at Cabrillo College in Aptos, California since 1994. Rick also teaches networking courses in the Computer Engineering department at the University of California, Santa Cruz and is on the Curriculum Engineering team for Cisco Networking Academy. Prior to teaching, he worked in the information technology field for Santa Cruz Operation, Tandem Computers, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, and served five years in the U.S. Coast Guard. When he is not working, he is most likely surfing at one of his favorite Santa Cruz surf breaks or hanging out with his dog, Luigi. You are welcome to use his instructional resources on his Cabrillo College website, www.cabrillo.edu/~rgraziani, for IPv6, CCNA, or CCNP information. You can email graziani@cabrillo.edu to obtain the username and password for all his materials.