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Routing and Switching Essentials v6 Companion Guide

Routing and Switching Essentials v6 Companion Guide

Cisco Networking Academy

Jan 2017, Hardback with Online Course Access, 640 pages
ISBN13: 9781587134289
ISBN10: 1587134284
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Routing and Switching Essentials v6 Companion Guide


Routing and Switching Essentials v6 Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Routing and Switching Essentials course in the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA Routing and Switching curriculum.


This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers and switches in a small network.


The Companion Guide is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the course and organize your time.


The book’s features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:


· Chapter Objectives–Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.

· Key Terms–Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter.

· Glossary–Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 250 terms.

· Summary of Activities and Labs–Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.

· Check Your Understanding–Evaluate your readiness with the end-ofchapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.


· How To–Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks.

· Interactive Activities–Reinforce your understanding of topics with dozens of exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.

· Packet Tracer Activities–Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters and provided in the accompanying Labs & Study Guide book.

· Videos–Watch the videos embedded within the online course.

· Hands-on Labs–Work through all the course labs and additional Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Labs & Study Guide.


This book is part of the Cisco Networking Academy Series from Cisco Press. Books in this series support and complement the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum.

Introduction xxi

Chapter 1 Routing Concepts 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 3

Router Initial Configuration (1.1) 4

Router Functions (1.1.1) 4

Characteristics of a Network (1.1.1.1) 4

Why Routing? (1.1.1.2) 6

Routers Are Computers (1.1.1.3) 7

Routers Interconnect Networks (1.1.1.4) 9

Routers Choose Best Paths (1.1.1.5) 10

Packet-Forwarding Mechanisms (1.1.1.6) 11

Connect Devices (1.1.2) 14

Connect to a Network (1.1.2.1) 14

Default Gateways (1.1.2.2) 16

Document Network Addressing (1.1.2.3) 17

Enable IP on a Host (1.1.2.4) 18

Device LEDs (1.1.2.5) 19

Console Access (1.1.2.6) 21

Enable IP on a Switch (1.1.2.7) 22

Router Basic Settings (1.1.3) 23

Configure Basic Router Settings (1.1.3.1) 23

Configure an IPv4 Router Interface (1.1.3.2) 24

Configure an IPv6 Router Interface (1.1.3.3) 26

Configure an IPv4 Loopback Interface (1.1.3.4) 29

Verify Connectivity of Directly Connected Networks (1.1.4) 30

Verify Interface Settings (1.1.4.1) 30

Verify IPv6 Interface Settings (1.1.4.2) 32

Filter Show Command Output (1.1.4.3) 35

Command History Feature (1.1.4.4) 36

Routing Decisions (1.2) 37

Switching Packets Between Networks (1.2.1) 37

Router Switching Function (1.2.1.1) 38

Send a Packet (1.2.1.2) 39

Forward to the Next Hop (1.2.1.3) 40

Packet Routing (1.2.1.4) 42

Reach the Destination (1.2.1.5) 43

Path Determination (1.2.2) 44

Routing Decisions (1.2.2.1) 44

Best Path (1.2.2.2) 45

Load Balancing (1.2.2.3) 46

Administrative Distance (1.2.2.4) 47

Router Operation (1.3) 48

Analyze the Routing Table (1.3.1) 49

The Routing Table (1.3.1.1) 49

Routing Table Sources (1.3.1.2) 49

Remote Network Routing Entries (1.3.1.3) 51

Directly Connected Routes (1.3.2) 52

Directly Connected Interfaces (1.3.2.1) 52

Directly Connected Routing Table Entries (1.3.2.2) 53

Directly Connected Examples (1.3.2.3) 54

Directly Connected IPv6 Example (1.3.2.4) 55

Statically Learned Routes (1.3.3) 58

Static Routes (1.3.3.1) 58

Static Route Examples (1.3.3.2) 59

Static IPv6 Route Examples (1.3.3.3) 61

Dynamic Routing Protocols (1.3.4) 62

Dynamic Routing (1.3.4.1) 62

IPv4 Routing Protocols (1.3.4.2) 63

IPv4 Dynamic Routing Examples (1.3.4.3) 64

IPv6 Routing Protocols (1.3.4.4) 65

IPv6 Dynamic Routing Examples (1.3.4.5) 66

Summary (1.4) 67

Practice 68

Class Activities 68

Labs 68

Packet Tracer Activities 69

Check Your Understanding Questions 69

Chapter 2 Static Routing 75

Objectives 75

Key Terms 75

Introduction (2.0.1.1) 76

Implement Static Routes (2.1) 76

Static Routing (2.1.1) 77

Reach Remote Networks (2.1.1.1) 77

Why Use Static Routing? (2.1.1.2) 78

When to Use Static Routes (2.1.1.3) 79

Types of Static Routes (2.1.2) 80

Static Route Applications (2.1.2.1) 80

Standard Static Route (2.1.2.2) 81

Default Static Route (2.1.2.3) 81

Summary Static Route (2.1.2.4) 82

Floating Static Route (2.1.2.5) 83

Configure Static and Default Routes (2.2) 84

Configure IPv4 Static Routes (2.2.1) 84

The ip route Command (2.2.1.1) 84

Next-Hop Options (2.2.1.2) 85

Configure a Next-Hop Static Route (2.2.1.3) 87

Configure a Directly Connected Static Route (2.2.1.4) 88

Configure a Fully Specified Static Route (2.2.1.5) 90

Verify a Static Route (2.2.1.6) 92

Configure IPv4 Default Routes (2.2.2) 93

Default Static Route (2.2.2.1) 93

Configure a Default Static Route (2.2.2.2) 93

Verify a Default Static Route (2.2.2.3) 94

Configure IPv6 Static Routes (2.2.3) 95

The ipv6 route Command (2.2.3.1) 95

Next-Hop Options (2.2.3.2) 96

Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.3) 99

Configure a Directly Connected Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.4) 100

Configure a Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route (2.2.3.5) 102

Verify IPv6 Static Routes (2.2.3.6) 103

Configure IPv6 Default Routes (2.2.4) 104

Default Static IPv6 Route (2.2.4.1) 104

Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route (2.2.4.2) 105

Verify a Default Static Route (2.2.4.3) 105

Configure Floating Static Routes (2.2.5) 106

Floating Static Routes (2.2.5.1) 106

Configure an IPv4 Floating Static Route (2.2.5.2) 107

Test the IPv4 Floating Static Route (2.2.5.3) 108

Configure an IPv6 Floating Static Route (2.2.5.4) 110

Configure Static Host Routes (2.2.6) 111

Automatically Installed Host Routes (2.2.6.1) 111

Configure IPv4 and IPv6 Static Host Routes (2.2.6.2) 113

Troubleshoot Static and Default Route (2.3) 115

Packet Processing with Static Routes (2.3.1) 115

Static Routes and Packet Forwarding (2.3.1.1) 115

Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration (2.3.2) 116

Troubleshoot a Missing Route (2.3.2.1) 116

Solve a Connectivity Problem (2.3.2.2) 118

Summary (2.4) 122

Practice 123

Class Activities 123

Labs 123

Packet Tracer Activities 123

Check Your Understanding Questions 124

Chapter 3 Dynamic Routing 127

Objectives 127

Key Terms 127

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 129

Dynamic Routing Protocols (3.1) 130

Dynamic Routing Protocol Overview (3.1.1) 130

Dynamic Routing Protocol Evolution (3.1.1.1) 130

Dynamic Routing Protocol Components (3.1.1.2) 132

Dynamic Versus Static Routing (3.1.2) 133

Static Routing Uses (3.1.2.1) 133

Static Routing Advantages and Disadvantages (3.1.2.2) 134

Dynamic Routing Protocols Uses (3.1.2.3) 134

Dynamic Routing Advantages and Disadvantages (3.1.2.4) 135

RIPv2 (3.2) 136

Configuring the RIP Protocol (3.2.1) 136

Router RIP Configuration Mode (3.2.1.1) 136

Advertise Networks (3.2.1.2) 138

Verify RIP Routing (3.2.1.3) 139

Enable and Verify RIPv2 (3.2.1.4) 140

Disable Auto Summarization (3.2.1.5) 142

Configure Passive Interfaces (3.2.1.6) 143

Propagate a Default Route (3.2.1.7) 145

The Routing Table (3.3) 147

Parts of an IPv4 Route Entry (3.3.1) 147

Routing Table Entries (3.3.1.1) 148

Directly Connected Entries (3.3.1.2) 149

Remote Network Entries (3.3.1.3) 150

Dynamically Learned IPv4 Routes (3.3.2) 151

Routing Table Terms (3.3.2.1) 151

Ultimate Route (3.3.2.2) 152

Level 1 Route (3.3.2.3) 153

Level 1 Parent Route (3.3.2.4) 154

Level 2 Child Route (3.3.2.5) 155

The IPv4 Route Lookup Process (3.3.3) 156

Route Lookup Process (3.3.3.1) 156

Best Route = Longest Match (3.3.3.2) 158

Analyze an IPv6 Routing Table (3.3.4) 159

IPv6 Routing Table Entries (3.3.4.1) 159

Directly Connected Entries (3.3.4.2) 160

Remote IPv6 Network Entries (3.3.4.3) 162

Summary (3.4) 165

Practice 166

Class Activities 166

Labs 166

Packet Tracer Activities 166

Check Your Understanding Questions 166

Chapter 4 Switched Networks 171

Objectives 171

Key Terms 171

Introduction (4.0.1.1) 173

LAN Design (4.1) 173

Converged Networks (4.1.1) 174

Growing Complexity of Networks (4.1.1.1) 174

Elements of a Converged Network (4.1.1.2) 175

Cisco Borderless Networks (4.1.1.3) 176

Hierarchy in the Borderless Switched Network (4.1.1.4) 177

Access, Distribution, and Core Layers (4.1.1.5) 179

Switched Networks (4.1.2) 181

Role of Switched Networks (4.1.2.1) 181

Form Factors (4.1.2.2) 183

The Switched Environment (4.2) 185

Frame Forwarding (4.2.1) 186

Switching as a General Concept in Networking and Telecommunications (4.2.1.1) 186

Dynamically Populating a Switch MAC Address Table (4.2.1.2) 188

Switch Forwarding Methods (4.2.1.3) 189

Store-and-Forward Switching (4.2.1.4) 190

Cut-Through Switching (4.2.1.5) 191

Switching Domains (4.2.2) 193

Collision Domains (4.2.2.1) 193

Broadcast Domains (4.2.2.2) 194

Alleviating Network Congestion (4.2.2.3) 195

Summary (4.3) 197

Practice 198

Class Activities 198

Check Your Understanding Questions 199

Chapter 5 Switch Configuration 203

Objectives 203

Key Terms 203

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 204

Basic Switch Configuration (5.1) 205

Configure a Switch with Initial Settings (5.1.1) 205

Switch Boot Sequence (5.1.1.1) 205

Recovering from a System Crash (5.1.1.2) 206

Switch LED Indicators (5.1.1.3) 207

Preparing for Basic Switch Management (5.1.1.4) 209

Configuring Basic Switch Management Access with IPv4 (5.1.1.5) 210

Configure Switch Ports (5.1.2) 213

Duplex Communication (5.1.2.1) 213

Configure Switch Ports at the Physical Layer (5.1.2.2) 214

Auto-MDIX (5.1.2.3) 215

Verifying Switch Port Configuration (5.1.2.4) 216

Network Access Layer Issues (5.1.2.5) 218

Troubleshooting Network Access Layer Issues (5.1.2.6) 221

Switch Security (5.2) 222

Secure Remote Access (5.2.1) 222

SSH Operation (5.2.1.1) 222

Configuring SSH (5.2.1.2) 225

Verifying SSH (5.2.1.3) 227

Switch Port Security (5.2.2) 229

Secure Unused Ports (5.2.2.1) 229

Port Security: Operation (5.2.2.2) 230

Port Security: Violation Modes (5.2.2.3) 232

Port Security: Configuring (5.2.2.4) 233

Port Security: Verifying (5.2.2.5) 234

Ports in Error-Disabled State (5.2.2.6) 236

Summary (5.3) 239

Practice 240

Class Activities 240

Labs 241

Packet Tracer Activities 241

Check Your Understanding Questions 241

Chapter 6 VLANs 245

Objectives 245

Key Terms 245

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 247

VLAN Segmentation (6.1) 248

Overview of VLANs (6.1.1) 248

VLAN Definitions (6.1.1.1) 248

Benefits of VLANs (6.1.1.2) 249

Types of VLANs (6.1.1.3) 250

Voice VLANs (6.1.1.4) 252

VLANs in a Multiswitched Environment (6.1.2) 253

VLAN Trunks (6.1.2.1) 253

Controlling Broadcast Domains with VLANs (6.1.2.2) 254

Tagging Ethernet Frames for VLAN Identification (6.1.2.3) 256

Native VLANs and 802.1Q Tagging (6.1.2.4) 257

Voice VLAN Tagging (6.1.2.5) 258

VLAN Implementations (6.2) 260

VLAN Assignment (6.2.1) 260

VLAN Ranges on Catalyst Switches (6.2.1.1) 260

Creating a VLAN (6.2.1.2) 262

Assigning Ports to VLANs (6.2.1.3) 263

Changing VLAN Port Membership (6.2.1.4) 264

Deleting VLANs (6.2.1.5) 266

Verifying VLAN Information (6.2.1.6) 267

VLAN Trunks (6.2.2) 270

Configuring IEEE 802.1Q Trunk Links (6.2.2.1) 270

Resetting the Trunk to Default State (6.2.2.2) 272

Verifying Trunk Configuration (6.2.2.3) 273

Troubleshoot VLANs and Trunks (6.2.3) 275

IP Addressing Issues with VLAN (6.2.3.1) 275

Missing VLANs (6.2.3.2) 276

Introduction to Troubleshooting Trunks (6.2.3.3) 278

Common Problems with Trunks (6.2.3.4) 279

Incorrect Port Mode (6.2.3.5) 281

Incorrect VLAN List (6.2.3.6) 284

Inter-VLAN Routing Using Routers (6.3) 287

Inter-VLAN Routing Operation (6.3.1) 287

What Is Inter-VLAN Routing? (6.3.1.1) 287

Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing (6.3.1.2) 288

Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (6.3.1.3) 290

Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing (6.3.2) 292

Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Preparation (6.3.2.1) 292

Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Switch Configuration (6.3.2.2) 293

Configure Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing: Router Interface Configuration (6.3.2.3) 294

Configure Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (6.3.3) 296

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Preparation (6.3.3.1) 296

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Switch Configuration (6.3.3.2) 297

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Router Subinterface Configuration (6.3.3.3) 298

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Subinterfaces (6.3.3.4) 299

Configure Router-on-a-Stick: Verifying Routing (6.3.3.5) 300

Summary (6.4) 303

Practice 304

Class Activities 305

Labs 305

Packet Tracer Activities 305

Check Your Understanding Questions 305

Chapter 7 Access Control Lists 309

Objectives 309

Key Terms 309

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 310

ACL Operation (7.1) 310

Purpose of ACLs (7.1.1) 311

What Is an ACL? (7.1.1.1) 311

Packet Filtering (7.1.1.2) 312

ACL Operation (7.1.1.3) 313

Wildcard Masks in ACLs (7.1.2) 314

Introducing ACL Wildcard Masking (7.1.2.1) 314

Wildcard Mask Examples (7.1.2.2) 316

Calculating the Wildcard Mask (7.1.2.3) 317

Wildcard Mask Keywords (7.1.2.4) 319

Wildcard Mask Keyword Examples (7.1.2.5) 320

Guidelines for ACL Creation (7.1.3) 321

General Guidelines for Creating ACLs (7.1.3.1) 321

ACL Best Practices (7.1.3.2) 322

Guidelines for ACL Placement (7.1.4) 322

Where to Place ACLs (7.1.4.1) 322

Standard ACL Placement (7.1.4.2) 324

Standard IPv4 ACLs (7.2) 325

Configure Standard IPv4 ACLs (7.2.1) 325

Numbered Standard IPv4 ACL Syntax (7.2.1.1) 325

Applying Standard IPv4 ACLs to Interfaces (7.2.1.2) 328

Numbered Standard IPv4 ACL Examples (7.2.1.3) 329

Named Standard IPv4 ACL Syntax (7.2.1.4) 330

Modify IPv4 ACLs (7.2.2) 332

Method 1: Use a Text Editor (7.2.2.1) 333

Method 2: Use Sequence Numbers (7.2.2.2) 334

Editing Standard Named ACLs (7.2.2.3) 335

Verifying ACLs (7.2.2.4) 336

ACL Statistics (7.2.2.5) 338

Securing VTY Ports with a Standard IPv4 ACL (7.2.3) 339

The access-class Command (7.2.3.1) 339

Verifying the VTY Port Is Secured (7.2.3.2) 341

Troubleshoot ACLs (7.3) 342

Processing Packets with ACLs (7.3.1) 342

The Implicit Deny Any (7.3.1.1) 343

The Order of ACEs in an ACL (7.3.1.2) 343

Cisco IOS Reorders Standard ACLs (7.3.1.3) 344

Routing Processes and ACLs (7.3.1.4) 347

Common IPv4 Standard ACL Errors (7.3.2) 349

Troubleshooting Standard IPv4 ACLs–Example 1 (7.3.2.1) 349

Troubleshooting Standard IPv4 ACLs–Example 2 (7.3.2.2) 351

Troubleshooting Standard IPv4 ACLs–Example 3 (7.3.2.3) 352

Summary (7.4) 355

Practice 356

Class Activities 357

Labs 357

Packet Tracer Activities 357

Check Your Understanding Questions 357

Chapter 8 DHCP 361

Objectives 361

Key Terms 361

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 363

DHCPv4 (8.1) 363

DHCPv4 Operation (8.1.1) 363

Introducing DHCPv4 (8.1.1.1) 364

DHCPv4 Operation (8.1.1.2) 364

DHCPv4 Message Format (8.1.1.3) 367

DHCPv4 Discover and Offer Messages (8.1.1.4) 369

Configuring a Basic DHCPv4 Server (8.1.2) 370

Configuring a Basic DHCPv4 Server (8.1.2.1) 370

Verifying DHCPv4 (8.1.2.2) 373

DHCPv4 Relay (8.1.2.3) 377

Configure DHCPv4 Client (8.1.3) 380

Configuring a Router as a DHCPv4 Client (8.1.3.1) 380

Configuring a Wireless Router as a DHCPv4 Client (8.1.3.2) 381

Troubleshoot DHCPv4 (8.1.4) 382

Troubleshooting Tasks (8.1.4.1) 382

Verify Router DHCPv4 Configuration (8.1.4.2) 384

Debugging DHCPv4 (8.1.4.3) 385

DHCPv6 (8.2) 387

SLAAC and DHCPv6 (8.2.1) 387

Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) (8.2.1.1) 387

SLAAC Operation (8.2.1.2) 389

SLAAC and DHCPv6 (8.2.1.3) 390

SLAAC Option (8.2.1.4) 391

Stateless DHCPv6 Option (8.2.1.5) 392

Stateful DHCPv6 Option (8.2.1.6) 393

DHCPv6 Operations (8.2.1.7) 394

Stateless DHCPv6 (8.2.2) 395

Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server (8.2.2.1) 395

Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Client (8.2.2.2) 396

Verifying Stateless DHCPv6 (8.2.2.3) 397

Stateful DHCPv6 Server (8.2.3) 399

Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server (8.2.3.1) 399

Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Client (8.2.3.2) 401

Verifying Stateful DHCPv6 (8.2.3.3) 401

Configuring a Router as a DHCPv6 Relay Agent (8.2.3.4) 402

Troubleshoot DHCPv6 (8.2.4) 404

Troubleshooting Tasks (8.2.4.1) 404

Verify Router DHCPv6 Configuration (8.2.4.2) 405

Debugging DHCPv6 (8.2.4.3) 407

Summary (8.3) 409

Practice 410

Class Activities 410

Labs 411

Packet Tracer Activities 411

Check Your Understanding Questions 411

Chapter 9 NAT for IPv4 415

Objectives 415

Key Terms 415

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 417

NAT Operation (9.1) 418

NAT Characteristics (9.1.1) 418

IPv4 Private Address Space (9.1.1.1) 418

What Is NAT? (9.1.1.2) 419

NAT Terminology (9.1.1.3 & 9.1.1.4) 420

How NAT Works (9.1.1.5) 423

Types of NAT (9.1.2) 424

Static NAT (9.1.2.1) 424

Dynamic NAT (9.1.2.2) 425

Port Address Translation (PAT) (9.1.2.3) 426

Next Available Port (9.1.2.4) 427

Comparing NAT and PAT (9.1.2.5) 428

NAT Advantages (9.1.3) 430

Advantages of NAT (9.1.3.1) 430

Disadvantages of NAT (9.1.3.2) 430

Configure NAT (9.2) 431

Configuring Static NAT (9.2.1) 432

Configure Static NAT (9.2.1.1) 432

Analyzing Static NAT (9.2.1.2) 433

Verifying Static NAT (9.2.1.3) 434

Configure Dynamic NAT (9.2.2) 436

Dynamic NAT Operation (9.2.2.1) 436

Configuring Dynamic NAT (9.2.2.2) 437

Analyzing Dynamic NAT (9.2.2.3) 438

Verifying Dynamic NAT (9.2.2.4) 440

Configure PAT (9.2.3) 443

Configuring PAT: Address Pool (9.2.3.1) 443

Configuring PAT: Single Address (9.2.3.2) 445

Analyzing PAT (9.2.3.3) 446

Verifying PAT (9.2.3.4) 449

Configure Port Forwarding (9.2.4) 451

Port Forwarding (9.2.4.1) 451

Wireless Router Example (9.2.4.2) 452

Configuring Port Forwarding with IOS (9.2.4.3) 453

NAT and IPv6 (9.2.5) 456

NAT for IPv6? (9.2.5.1) 456

IPv6 Unique Local Addresses (9.2.5.2) 457

NAT for IPv6 (9.2.5.3) 458

Troubleshoot NAT (9.3) 459

NAT Troubleshooting Commands (9.3.1) 460

The show ip nat Commands (9.3.1.1) 460

The debug ip nat Command (9.3.1.2) 462

NAT Troubleshooting Scenario (9.3.1.3) 464

Summary (9.4) 468

Practice 469

Class Activities 469

Labs 469

Packet Tracer Activities 469

Check Your Understanding Questions 470

Chapter 10 Device Discovery, Management, and Maintenance 475

Objectives 475

Key Terms 475

Introduction (10.0.0.1) 477

Device Discovery (10.1) 477

Device Discovery with CDP (10.1.1) 477

CDP Overview (10.1.1.1) 477

Configure and Verify CDP (10.1.1.2) 478

Discover Devices Using CDP (10.1.1.3) 480

Device Discovery with LLDP (10.1.2) 483

LLDP Overview (10.1.2.1) 483

Configure and Verify LLDP (10.1.2.2) 484

Discover Devices Using LLDP (10.1.2.3) 484

Device Management (10.2) 486

NTP (10.2.1) 487

Setting the System Clock (10.2.1.1) 487

NTP Operation (10.2.1.2) 488

Configure and Verify NTP (10.2.1.3) 489

Syslog Operation (10.2.2) 491

Introduction to Syslog (10.2.2.1) 491

Syslog Operation (10.2.2.2) 492

Syslog Message Format (10.2.2.3) 493

Service Timestamp (10.2.2.4) 496

Syslog Configuration (10.2.3) 497

Syslog Server (10.2.3.1) 497

Default Logging (10.2.3.2) 497

Router and Switch Commands for Syslog Clients (10.2.3.3) 499

Verifying Syslog (10.2.3.4) 500

Device Maintenance (10.3) 502

Router and Switch File Maintenance (10.3.1) 502

Router File Systems (10.3.1.1) 502

Switch File Systems (10.3.1.2) 505

Backing Up and Restoring Using Text Files (10.3.1.3) 505

Backing Up and Restoring TFTP (10.3.1.4) 507

Using USB Ports on a Cisco Router (10.3.1.5) 508

Backing Up and Restoring Using a USB (10.3.1.6) 508

Password Recovery (10.3.1.7) 511

IOS System Files (10.3.2) 514

IOS 15 System Image Packaging (10.3.2.1) 514

IOS Image Filenames (10.3.2.2) 515

IOS Image Management (10.3.3) 517

TFTP Servers as a Backup Location (10.3.3.1) 517

Steps to Back Up IOS Image to TFTP Server (10.3.3.2) 518

Steps to Copy an IOS Image to a Device (10.3.3.3) 519

The boot system Command (10.3.3.4) 521

Software Licensing (10.3.4) 522

Licensing Overview (10.3.4.1) 522

Licensing Process (10.3.4.2) 524

Step 1. Purchase the Software Package or Feature to Install (10.3.4.3) 524

Step 2. Obtain a License (10.3.4.4) 525

Step 3. Install the License (10.3.4.5) 526

License Verification and Management (10.3.5) 527

License Verification (10.3.5.1) 527

Activate an Evaluation Right-to-Use License (10.3.5.2) 529

Back Up the License (10.3.5.3) 531

Uninstall the License (10.3.5.4) 532

Summary (10.4) 534

Practice 534

Labs 534

Packet Tracer Activities 535

Check Your Understanding Questions 535

Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions

Glossary

9781587134289 TOC 11/8/2016

  • The only authorized Companion Guide to the Networking Academy curriculum
  • Portable, desk reference for take-home study and reference anytime, anywhere
  • Aligns to the online course chapters. Provides students with the only authorized, full-featured textbook for the Cisco Networking Academy course
  • Book-based pedagogy that serves as additional reinforcement in helping the student learn the topics covered in the course
  • Companion CD-ROM containing visual and interactive learning aids

Cisco Networking Academy teaches hundreds of thousands of students annually the skills needed to build, design, and maintain networks, improving their career prospects while filling the global demand for networking professionals. With 10,000 academies in 165 countries, it helps individuals prepare for industry-recognized certifications and entry-level information and communication technology careers in virtually every industry–developing foundational technical skills while acquiring vital 21st-century career skills in problem solving, collaboration, and critical thinking. Cisco Networking Academy uses a public-private partnership model to create the "world's largest classroom."