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31 Days Before Your CCNA Routing & Switching Exam

31 Days Before Your CCNA Routing & Switching Exam

A Day-By-Day Review Guide for the ICND1/CCENT (100-105), ICND2 (200-105), and CCNA (200-125) Certification Exa

Allan Johnson

Apr 2017, Paperback, 544 pages
ISBN13: 9781587205903
ISBN10: 1587205904
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31 Days Before Your CCNA Routing & Switching Exam offers a friendly, practical way to understand the CCNA Routing & Switching certification process, commit to taking the ICND1 (100-105) and ICND2 (200-105) exams or the CCNA (200-125) exam, and finish your preparation using a variety of Primary and Supplemental study resources.


These fully updated CCNA exams test knowledge and skills needed to successfully deploy LAN switching, IPv4 and IPv6 routing, WANs, and infrastructure services; and to secure and manage modern network infrastructure.


Sign up for your exam(s) and use this book’s day-by-day guide and checklist to organize, prepare, and review. Each day in this guide breaks down an exam topic into a manageable bit of information to review using short summaries. Daily Study Resources sections provide quick references for locating more in-depth treatment within Primary and Supplemental resources.


This book’s features help you fit exam preparation into a busy schedule:

· Visual tear-card calendar summarizing each day’s study topic

· Checklist providing advice on preparation activities leading up to the exam

· Descriptions of ICND1 (100-105), ICND2 (200-105), and CCNA (200-125) exam organization and sign-up processes

· Strategies to prepare mentally, organizationally, and physically for exam day

· Conversational tone to make study more enjoyable

Introduction xxviii

Digital Study Guide xxxiii

Day 31: Networking Models, Devices, and Components 1

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 1

Key Points 1

The OSI and TCP/IP Models 1

OSI Layers 2

TCP/IP Layers and Protocols 3

Protocol Data Units and Encapsulation 4

The TCP/IP Application Layer 5

The TCP/IP Transport Layer 5

TCP Header 6

Port Numbers 7

Error Recovery 7

Flow Control 8

Connection Establishment and Termination 9

UDP 10

The TCP/IP Internet Layer 10

The TCP/IP Network Access Layer 11

Data Encapsulation Summary 12

Devices 13

Switches 13

Access Layer Switches 14

Distribution Layer Switches 14

Core Layer Switches 14

Routers 15

Specialty Devices 15

Firewalls 16

IDS and IPS 16

Access Points and Wireless LAN Controllers 17

Physical Layer 19

Network Media Forms and Standards 19

LAN Device Connection Guidelines 21

LANs and WANs 22

Networking Icons 23

Physical and Logical Topologies 23

Hierarchical Campus Designs 24

Study Resources 26

Day 30: Ethernet Switching 27

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 27

Key Topics 27

Evolution to Switching 27

Switching Logic 28

Collision and Broadcast Domains 29

Frame Forwarding 29

Switch Forwarding Methods 29

Symmetric and Asymmetric Switching 30

Memory Buffering 30

Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switching 30

Ethernet Overview 30

Legacy Ethernet Technologies 31

CSMA/CD 32

Legacy Ethernet Summary 33

Current Ethernet Technologies 33

UTP Cabling 34

Benefits of Using Switches 35

Ethernet Addressing 36

Ethernet Framing 37

The Role of the Physical Layer 38

Study Resources 39

Day 29: Switch Configuration Basics 41

CCENT 100-101 ICND1 Exam Topics 41

Key Topics 41

Accessing and Navigating the Cisco IOS 41

Connecting to Cisco Devices 41

CLI EXEC Sessions 42

Using the Help Facility 42

CLI Navigation and Editing Shortcuts 43

Command History 44

IOS Examination Commands 44

Subconfiguration Modes 45

Basic Switch Configuration Commands 46

Half-Duplex, Full-Duplex, and Port Speed 47

Automatic Medium-Dependent Interface Crossover (auto-MDIX) 48

Verifying Network Connectivity 48

Troubleshoot Interface and Cable Issues 51

Media Issues 51

Interface Status and the Switch Configuration 52

Interface Status Codes 52

Duplex and Speed Mismatches 52

Common Layer 1 Problems On “Up” Interfaces 54

Study Resources 54

Day 28: VLAN and Trunking Concepts and Configurations 57

CCENT 100-101 ICND1 Exam Topics 57

Key Points 57

VLAN Concepts 57

Traffic Types 58

Types of VLANs 59

Voice VLAN Example 59

Trunking VLANs 60

Dynamic Trunking Protocol 61

VLAN Configuration and Verification 62

Extended VLANs 66

Trunking Configuration and Verification 68

VLAN Troubleshooting 71

Disabled VLANs 72

Trunking Troubleshooting 73

Check Both Ends of a Trunk 73

Check Trunking Operational States 74

Study Resources 75

Day 27: IPv4 Addressing 77

CCENT 100-101 ICND1 Exam Topics 77

Key Topics 77

IPv4 Addressing 77

Header Format 78

Classes of Addresses 78

Purpose of the Subnet Mask 80

Private and Public IP Addressing 81

Subnetting in Four Steps 81

Determine How Many Bits to Borrow 81

Determine the New Subnet Mask 82

Determine the Subnet Multiplier 83

List the Subnets, Host Ranges, and Broadcast Addresses 83

Subnetting Example 1 83

Subnetting Example 2 84

Subnetting Example 3 84

VLSM 85

Study Resources 87

Day 26: IPv6 Addressing 89

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 89

Key Topics 89

Overview and Benefits of IPv6 89

The IPv6 Protocol 90

IPv6 Address Types 91

Unicast 92

Global Unicast Address 92

Link-Local Address 95

Loopback Address 96

Unspecified Address 96

Unique Local Address 96

IPv4 Embedded Address 97

Multicast 98

Assigned Multicast 98

Solicited-Node Multicast 98

Anycast 100

Representing the IPv6 Address 100

Conventions for Writing IPv6 Addresses 100

Conventions for Writing IPv6 Prefixes 101

IPv6 Subnetting 102

Subnetting the Subnet ID 103

Subnetting into the Interface ID 103

EUI-64 Concept 103

Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 104

Migration to IPv6 105

Study Resources 106

Day 25: Basic Routing Concepts 107

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 107

Key Topics 107

Packet Forwarding 107

Path Determination and Switching Function Example 108

Routing Methods 109

Classifying Dynamic Routing Protocols 110

IGP and EGP 110

Distance Vector Routing Protocols 111

Link-State Routing Protocols 111

Classful Routing Protocols 112

Classless Routing Protocols 112

Dynamic Routing Metrics 112

Administrative Distance 113

IGP Comparison Summary 115

Routing Loop Prevention 115

Link-State Routing Protocol Features 116

Building the LSDB 116

Calculating the Dijkstra Algorithm 117

Convergence with Link-State Protocols 118

Study Resources 119

Day 24: Basic Router Configuration 121

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 121

Key Topic 121

Basic Router Configuration with IPv4 121

Command Syntax 122

Configuration Example 122

Verification Example 124

Basic Router Configuration with IPv6 130

Command Syntax 130

Configuration Example 130

Verifying IPv4 and IPv6 Network Connectivity 133

Basic IP Addressing Troubleshooting 136

Default Gateway 136

Duplicate IP Addresses 136

Study Resources 137

Day 23: Static and Default Route Configuration 139

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 139

Key Topics 139

Static and Default Routing Overview 139

IPv4 Static Route Configuration 140

IPv4 Static Routes Using the Next-Hop Parameter 142

IPv4 Static Routes Using the Exit Interface Parameter 143

IPv4 Default Route Configuration 144

IPv4 Summary Static Route Configuration 147

IPv6 Static Routing 148

IPv6 Static Route Configuration 149

IPv6 Default Route Configuration 150

IPv6 Summary Static Route Configuration 151

Study Resources 152

Day 22: RIPv2 Implementation 155

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 155

Key Topic 155

RIP Concepts 155

RIPv1 Message Format 155

RIPv1 Operation 156

RIPv1 Configuration 156

RIPv1 Verification and Troubleshooting 158

Passive Interfaces 161

Automatic Summarization 162

Default Routing and RIPv1 164

RIPv2 Configuration 165

Disabling Autosummarization 167

RIPv2 Verification and Troubleshooting 167

Study Resources 168

Day 21: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration 169

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 169

Key Topics 169

VTP Concepts 169

VTP Configuration and Verification 171

Inter-VLAN Routing Concepts 175

Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing 175

Router on a Stick 176

Multilayer Switch 177

Router on a Stick Configuration and Verification 177

Multilayer Switch Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration and Verification 180

Creating Additional SVIs 180

Configuring a Layer 3 Routed Port 182

Study Resources 182

Day 20: OSPF Operation 185

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 185

Key Topics 185

Single-Area OSPF Operation 185

OSPF Message Format 185

OSPF Packet Types 186

Neighbor Establishment 186

Link-State Advertisements 188

OSPF DR and BDR 189

OSPF Algorithm 189

Link-State Routing Process 190

OSPFv2 Versus OSPFv3 191

Similarities Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 191

Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 192

Multiarea OSPF Operation 192

Multiarea OSPF Design 192

Multiarea OSPF Improves Performance 194

Study Resources 194

Day 19: Single-Area OSPF Implementation 197

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 197

Key Topics 197

Single-Area OSPFv2 Configuration 197

The router ospf Command 198

Router ID 198

The network Command 199

Passive Interfaces 200

Modifying the OSPF Metric 200

Verifying OSPFv2 203

Single-Area OSPFv3 Configuration 206

The Router ID in OSPFv3 208

Verifying OSPFv3 209

Study Resources 212

Day 18: Multiarea OSPF Implementation 215

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 215

Key Topics 215

Multiarea OSPFv2 Implementation 215

Multiarea OSPFv3 Implementation 218

Study Resources 223

Day 17: Fine-Tuning and Troubleshooting OSPF 225

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 225

Key Topics 225

OSPFv2 Configuration Example 225

Modifying OSPFv2 227

Redistributing a Default Route 227

Modifying Hello and Dead Intervals 228

OSPF Network Types 228

DR/BDR Election 229

Controlling the DR/BDR Election 229

OSPFv3 Configuration Example 231

Modifying OSPFv3 233

Propagating a Default Route 233

Modifying the Timers 234

Troubleshooting OSPF 235

OSPF States 235

OSPF Adjacency 236

OSPF Troubleshooting Commands 236

Study Resources 238

Day 16: EIGRP Operation 239

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 239

Key Topics 239

EIGRP Overview 239

EIGRP Characteristics 240

PDMs 240

RTP 240

EIGRP Packet Types 241

EIGRP Message Format 241

EIGRP Processes 243

EIGRP Convergence 243

EIGRP Composite Metric 244

Administrative Distance 244

DUAL 245

DUAL Concepts 245

DUAL FSM 246

Study Resources 247

Day 15: EIGRP Implementation 249

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 249

Key Topics 249

EIGRP for IPv4 Configuration 249

EIGRP Topology and Addressing Scheme 249

The network Command 250

The Router ID 250

EIGRP for IPv4 Verification 251

Examining the Protocol Details 251

Examining Neighbor Tables 252

Examining the Topology Tables 253

Examining the Routing Table 255

EIGRP for IPv6 Concepts 255

EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration 256

EIGRP for IPv6 Verification 258

Examining the Protocol Details 258

Examining the Neighbor Table 259

Examining the Routing Table 260

Study Resources 261

Day 14: Fine-Tuning and Troubleshooting EIGRP 263

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 263

Key Topics 263

Modifying the EIGRP for IPv4 Configuration 263

Automatic Summarization 263

EIGRP for IPv4 Topology 264

Propagating an IPv4 Default Route 265

Modifying the EIGRP Metric 266

Modifying Hello Intervals and Hold Times 266

Modifying EIGRP for IPv6 267

EIGRP for IPv6 Topology 267

Propagating an IPv6 Default Route 267

Modifying Bandwidth Utilization 268

Modifying Hello Intervals and Hold Times 269

EIGRP Troubleshooting Commands 269

Discontiguous Networks 270

Study Resources 271

Day 13: CDP and LLDP 273

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 273

Key Topics 273

CDP Overview 273

CDP Configuration 274

CDP Verification 277

LLDP Overview 279

LLDP Configuration 280

LLDP Verification 281

Study Resources 283

Day 12: LAN Security and Device Hardening 285

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 285

Key Topics 285

Port Security Configuration 285

Port Restoration After a Violation 288

LAN Threat Mitigation 289

DHCP Snooping 289

Native and Management VLAN Modification 290

Switch Port Hardening 291

AAA 292

802.1X 293

SSH Configuration 294

Study Resources 296

Day 11: STP 297

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 297

Key Topics 297

STP Concepts and Operation 297

STP Algorithm 298

STP Convergence 299

STP Varieties 300

PVST Operation 301

Port States 302

Extended System ID 303

Rapid PVST+ Operation 303

RSTP Interface Behavior 304

RSTP Port Roles 305

Edge Ports 305

Configuring and Verifying Varieties of STP 306

STP Configuration Overview 306

Configuring and Verifying the BID 307

Configuring PortFast and BPDU Guard 309

Configuring Rapid PVST+ 309

Verifying STP 310

Switch Stacking 310

Study Resources 312

Day 10: EtherChannel and HSRP 313

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 313

Key Topics 313

EtherChannel Operation 313

Benefits of EtherChannel 314

Implementation Restrictions 314

EtherChannel Protocols 315

Port Aggregation Protocol 315

Link Aggregation Control Protocol 315

Configuring EtherChannel 316

Verifying EtherChannel 317

Troubleshooting EtherChannel 319

First-Hop Redundancy Concepts 319

FHRPs 320

HSRP Operation 321

HSRP Versions 321

HSRP Priority and Preemption 322

HSRP Configuration and Verification 322

HSRP Load Balancing 323

Troubleshooting HSRP 326

Study Resources 326

Day 9: ACL Concepts 329

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 329

Key Topics 329

ACL Operation 329

Defining an ACL 329

Processing Interface ACLs 329

List Logic with IP ACLs 330

Planning to Use ACLs 331

Types of ACLs 332

ACL Identification 333

ACL Design Guidelines 333

Study Resources 334

Day 8: ACL Implementation 335

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 335

Key Topics 335

Configuring Standard Numbered IPv4 ACLs 335

Standard Numbered IPv4 ACL: Permit Specific Network 335

Standard Numbered IPv4 ACL: Deny a Specific Host 336

Standard Numbered IPv4 ACL: Deny a Specific Subnet 337

Standard Numbered IPv4 ACL: Deny Telnet or SSH Access to the Router 337

Configuring Extended Numbered IPv4 ACLs 337

Extended Numbered IPv4 ACL: Deny FTP from Subnets 338

Extended Numbered IPv4 ACL: Deny Only Telnet from Subnet 338

Configuring Named IPv4 ACLs 339

Standard Named IPv4 ACL Steps and Syntax 339

Standard Named IPv4 ACL: Deny a Single Host from a Given Subnet 340

Extended Named IPv4 ACL Steps and Syntax 340

Adding Comments to Named or Numbered IPv4 ACLs 340

Verifying IPv4 ACLs 341

Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs 343

Configuring IPv6 ACLs 343

Step 1: Name the IPv6 ACL 344

Step 2: Create the IPv6 ACL 344

Step 3: Apply the IPv6 ACL 344

Standard IPv6 ACL: Allow SSH Remote Access 344

Extended IPv6 ACL: Allow Only Web Traffic 345

Verifying IPv6 ACLs 346

Troubleshooting ACLs 348

Study Resources 349

Day 7: DHCP and DNS 351

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 351

Key Topics 351

DHCPv4 351

DHCPv4 Configuration Options 352

Configuring a Router as a DHCPv4 Server 352

Configuring a Router to Relay DHCPv4 Requests 356

Configuring a Router as a DHCPv4 Client 357

DHCPv6 358

SLAAC 358

Stateless DHCPv6 360

Stateful DHCPv6 360

Stateless and Stateful DHCPv6 Operation 360

DHCPv6 Configuration Options 361

Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server 361

Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server 363

DHCP Troubleshooting 363

Resolve IPv4 Address Conflicts 363

Test Connectivity Using a Static IP Address 364

Verify Switch Port Configuration 364

Test DHCPv4 Operation on the Same Subnet or VLAN 364

DNS Operation 364

Troubleshooting DNS 366

Study Resources 367

Day 6: NAT 369

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 369

Key Topics 369

NAT Concepts 369

A NAT Example 371

Dynamic and Static NAT 372

NAT Overload 372

NAT Benefits 373

NAT Limitations 373

Configuring Static NAT 374

Configuring Dynamic NAT 375

Configuring NAT Overload 376

Verifying NAT 377

Troubleshooting NAT 378

NAT for IPv6 379

IPv6 Private Address Space 379

Purpose of NAT for IPv6 379

Study Resources 380

Day 5: WAN Overview 381

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 381

Key Topics 381

WAN Topologies 381

WAN Connection Options 382

Dedicated Connection Options 383

Circuit-Switched Connection Options 384

Packet-Switched Connection Options 385

Metro Ethernet 385

MPLS 386

Internet Connection Options 386

DSL 386

Cable Modem 387

Wireless 388

Choosing a WAN Link Option 388

VPN Technology 389

VPN Benefits 389

Types of VPN Access 389

Study Resources 391

Day 4: WAN Implementation 393

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 393

Key Topics 393

PPP Concepts 393

The PPP Frame Format 393

PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP) 394

Looped-Link Detection 394

Enhanced Error Detection 395

PPP Multilink 395

PPP Authentication 395

PPP Configuration and Verification 396

Basic PPP 396

CHAP 397

PAP 398

PPP Troubleshooting 398

PPPoE Concepts 399

PPPoE Configuration 399

PPPoE Configuration Example 400

PPPoE Troubleshooting 400

GRE Tunneling 401

GRE Characteristics 401

GRE Configuration and Verification 401

GRE Troubleshooting 403

BGP Concepts 403

eBGP Configuration and Verification 404

Study Resources 407

Day 3: QoS, Cloud, and SDN 409

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 409

Key Topics 409

QoS 409

Classification and Marking 410

DSCP and IPP 411

EF and AF 412

Congestion Management 413

Policing, Shaping, and TCP Discards 413

QoS and TCP 415

Cloud Computing 416

Server Virtualization 416

Cloud Computing Services 418

Virtual Network Infrastructure 419

Software-Defined Networking 419

Data, Control, and Management Planes 419

Controllers 421

SDN Examples 421

Open SDN and OpenFlow 421

The Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure 422

The Cisco APIC Enterprise Module (APIC-EM) 423

APIC-EM and ACLs 424

Study Resources 426

Day 2: Device Monitoring, Management, and Maintenance 427

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 427

Key Topics 427

SNMP Operation 427

SNMP Components 427

SNMP Messages 427

SNMP Versions 428

The Management Information Base 428

Configuring SNMP 430

Verifying SNMP 430

Syslog 432

Syslog Operation 432

Syslog Configuration and Verification 434

Network Time Protocol 436

Cisco IOS File System and Devices 437

IFS Commands 437

URL Prefixes for Specifying File Locations 440

Commands for Managing Configuration Files 440

Manage Cisco IOS Images 442

Backing Up a Cisco IOS Image 442

Restoring a Cisco IOS Image 443

Managing Cisco IOS Licenses 444

Password Recovery 448

Study Resources 449

Day 1: Troubleshooting Methodologies and Tools 451

CCNA 200-125 Exam Topics 451

Key Topics 451

Troubleshooting Documentation 451

Configuration Files 451

Topology Diagrams 452

Baseline Date 453

Troubleshooting Methods 454

Troubleshooting at Each Layer 455

Physical Layer 455

Data Link Layer 456

Network Layer 456

Transport Layer 457

Application Layer 458

Bottom-Up Method and the Layers 459

Troubleshooting with IP Service Level Agreement 459

Study Resources 462

Exam Day 465

What You Need for the Exam 465

What You Should Receive After Completion 465

Summary 465

Post-Exam Information 467

Receiving Your Certificate 467

Determining Career Options 467

Examining Certification Options 468

If You Failed the Exam 468

Summary 468

9781587205903 TOC 3/3/2017

  • A practical way to commit to taking the CCENT in one month after the Networking Academy study
  • A way to review key points of the Networking Academy information with a specific focus on ICND1 / CCENT objectives
  • The only CCENT exam preparation resource to address a student CCENT exam readiness gap

Allan Johnson entered the academic world in 1999 after 10 years as a business owner/operator to follow his passion for teaching. He holds both an MBA and an M.Ed. in Occupational Training and Development. Allan taught CCNA courses at the high school level for 7 years and has taught both CCNA and CCNP courses at Del Mar College in Corpus Christi, Texas. In 2003, Allan began to commit much of his time and energy to the CCNA Instructional Support Team, providing services to Networking Academy instructors worldwide and creating training materials. He now works full time for Cisco Networking Academy as a Learning Systems Developer.

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