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IoT Fundamentals

IoT Fundamentals

Networking Technologies, Protocols, and Use Cases for the Internet of Things

David Hanes, Gonzalo Salgueiro, Patrick Grossetete, Robert Barton, Jerome Henry

Jun 2017, Paperback, 576 pages
ISBN13: 9781587144561
ISBN10: 1587144565
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Today, billions of devices are Internet-connected, IoT standards and protocols are stabilizing, and technical professionals must increasingly solve real problems with IoT technologies. Now, five leading Cisco IoT experts present the first comprehensive, practical reference for making IoT work. IoT Fundamentals brings together knowledge previously available only in white papers, standards documents, and other hard-to-find sources—or nowhere at all.


The authors begin with a high-level overview of IoT and introduce key concepts needed to successfully design IoT solutions. Next, they walk through each key technology, protocol, and technical building block that combine into complete IoT solutions.


Building on these essentials, they present several detailed use cases, including manufacturing, energy, utilities, smart+connected cities, transportation, mining, and public safety. Whatever your role or existing infrastructure, you’ll gain deep insight what IoT applications can do, and what it takes to deliver them.


  • Fully covers the principles and components of next-generation wireless networks built with Cisco IOT solutions such as IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), IEEE 802.15.4-2015 (Mesh), and LoRaWAN
  • Brings together real-world tips, insights, and best practices for designing and implementing next-generation wireless networks
  • Presents start-to-finish configuration examples for common deployment scenarios
  • Reflects the extensive first-hand experience of Cisco experts

Foreword xxvi
Introduction xxviii
Part I Introduction to IoT 1
Chapter 1 What Is IoT? 3
Genesis of IoT 4
IoT and Digitization 6
IoT Impact 7
Connected Roadways 8
Connected Factory 12
Smart Connected Buildings 15
Smart Creatures 19
Convergence of IT and OT 21
IoT Challenges 23
Summary 24
References 24
Chapter 2 IoT Network Architecture and Design 27
Drivers Behind New Network Architectures 28
Scale 30
Security 31
Constrained Devices and Networks 32
Data 32
Legacy Device Support 32
Comparing IoT Architectures 33
The oneM2M IoT Standardized Architecture 33
The IoT World Forum (IoTWF) Standardized Architecture 35
Additional IoT Reference Models 39
A Simplified IoT Architecture 40
The Core IoT Functional Stack 43
Layer 1: Things: Sensors and Actuators Layer 44
Layer 2: Communications Network Layer 46
Layer 3: Applications and Analytics Layer 59
IoT Data Management and Compute Stack 63
Fog Computing 65
Edge Computing 68
The Hierarchy of Edge, Fog, and Cloud 68
Summary 70
References 71
Part II Engineering IoT Networks 73
Chapter 3 Smart Objects: The “Things” in IoT 75
Sensors, Actuators, and Smart Objects 76
Sensors 76
Actuators 81
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) 83
Smart Objects 84
Sensor Networks 87
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 88
Communication Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 92
Summary 93
Chapter 4 Connecting Smart Objects 95
Communications Criteria 96
Range 96
Frequency Bands 98
Power Consumption 101
Topology 102
Constrained Devices 103
Constrained-Node Networks 104
IoT Access Technologies 107
IEEE 802.15.4 108
IEEE 802.15.4g and 802.15.4e 118
IEEE 1901.2a 124
IEEE 802.11ah 130
LoRaWAN 134
NB-IoT and Other LTE Variations 142
Summary 146
Chapter 5 IP as the IoT Network Layer 149
The Business Case for IP 150
The Key Advantages of Internet Protocol 150
Adoption or Adaptation of the Internet Protocol 152
The Need for Optimization 154
Constrained Nodes 155
Constrained Networks 156
IP Versions 157
Optimizing IP for IoT 159
From 6LoWPAN to 6Lo 159
Header Compression 161
Fragmentation 162
Mesh Addressing 163
6TiSCH 165
RPL 167
Authentication and Encryption on Constrained Nodes 173
Profiles and Compliances 174
Internet Protocol for Smart Objects (IPSO) Alliance 174
Wi-SUN Alliance 174
Thread 174
IPv6 Ready Logo 175
Summary 175
Chapter 6 Application Protocols for IoT 177
The Transport Layer 178
IoT Application Transport Methods 180
Application Layer Protocol Not Present 180
SCADA 182
Generic Web-Based Protocols 189
IoT Application Layer Protocols 191
Summary 204
Chapter 7 Data and Analytics for IoT 205
An Introduction to Data Analytics for IoT 206
Structured Versus Unstructured Data 207
Data in Motion Versus Data at Rest 209
IoT Data Analytics Overview 209
IoT Data Analytics Challenges 211
Machine Learning 212
Machine Learning Overview 212
Machine Learning and Getting Intelligence from Big Data 218
Predictive Analytics 220
Big Data Analytics Tools and Technology 220
Massively Parallel Processing Databases 222
NoSQL Databases 223
Hadoop 224
The Hadoop Ecosystem 227
Edge Streaming Analytics 230
Comparing Big Data and Edge Analytics 231
Edge Analytics Core Functions 232
Distributed Analytics Systems 235
Network Analytics 236
Flexible NetFlow Architecture 238
Summary 242
References 243
Chapter 8 Securing IoT 245
A Brief History of OT Security 246
Common Challenges in OT Security 249
Erosion of Network Architecture 249
Pervasive Legacy Systems 250
Insecure Operational Protocols 250
Other Protocols 253
Device Insecurity 254
Dependence on External Vendors 255
Security Knowledge 256
How IT and OT Security Practices and Systems Vary 256
The Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy 257
OT Network Characteristics Impacting Security 259
Security Priorities: Integrity, Availability, and Confidentiality 261
Security Focus 261
Formal Risk Analysis Structures: OCTAVE and FAIR 262
OCTAVE 262
FAIR 265
The Phased Application of Security in an Operational Environment 266
Secured Network Infrastructure and Assets 266
Deploying Dedicated Security Appliances 269
Higher-Order Policy Convergence and Network Monitoring 272
Summary 274
Part III IoT in Industry 275
Chapter 9 Manufacturing 277
An Introduction to Connected Manufacturing 278
An IoT Strategy for Connected Manufacturing 279
Business Improvements Driven Through IoT 281
An Architecture for the Connected Factory 282
Industrial Automation and Control Systems Reference Model 282
The CPwE Reference Model 284
CPwE Resilient Network Design 286
CPwE Wireless 289
Industrial Automation Control Protocols 293
EtherNet/IP and CIP 293
PROFINET 294
The PROFINET Architecture 296
Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP) 297
Modbus/TCP 298
Connected Factory Security 299
A Holistic Approach to Industrial Security 299
Edge Computing in the Connected Factory 304
Connected Machines and Edge Computing 304
Summary 307
References 307
Chapter 10 Oil and Gas 309
An Introduction to the Oil and Gas Industry 310
Defining Oil and Gas 310
The Oil and Gas Value Chain 313
Current Trends in the Oil and Gas Industry 314
Industry Key Challenges as Digitization Drivers 316
IoT and the Oil and Gas Industry 319
Improving Operational Efficiency 321
The Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy in Oil and Gas Networks 321
Oil and Gas Use Cases for IoT 323
IoT Architectures for Oil and Gas 326
Control Room Networks for Oil and Gas 327
Wired Networks for Oil and Gas 328
Wireless Networks for Oil and Gas 328
Wireless Use Cases in the Oil and Gas Industry 332
The Risk Control Framework for Cybersecurity in IoT 335
Securing the Oil and Gas PCN: Background 337
Securing the Oil and Gas PCN: Use Cases and Requirements 338
Data Analytics for Predictive Asset Monitoring 341
Summary 342
References 343
Chapter 11 Utilities 345
An Introduction to the Power Utility Industry 347
The IT/OT Divide in Utilities 348
The GridBlocks Reference Model 350
GridBlocks: An 11-Tiered Reference Architecture 352
The Primary Substation GridBlock and Substation Automation 356
SCADA 357
IEC 61850: The Modernization of Substation Communication
Standards 358
Network Resiliency Protocols in the Substation 362
System Control GridBlock: The Substation WAN 364
Defining Teleprotection 364
Designing a WAN for Teleprotection 367
The Field Area Network (FAN) GridBlock 369
Advanced Metering Infrastructure 371
Other Use Cases 373
Securing the Smart Grid 377
NERC CIP 378
Smart Grid Security Considerations 380
The Future of the Smart Grid 381
Summary 382
References 383
Chapter 12 Smart and Connected Cities 385
An IoT Strategy for Smarter Cities 386
Vertical IoT Needs for Smarter Cities 386
Global vs. Siloed Strategies 389
Smart City IoT Architecture 390
Street Layer 391
City Layer 394
Data Center Layer 395
Services Layer 397
On-Premises vs. Cloud 398
Smart City Security Architecture 398
Smart City Use-Case Examples 401
Connected Street Lighting 401
Connected Environment 409
Summary 411
References 412
Chapter 13 Transportation 413
Transportation and Transports 413
Transportation Challenges 415
Roadways 415
Mass Transit 416
Rail 417
Challenges for Transportation Operators and Users 418
IoT Use Cases for Transportation 420
Connected Cars 421
Connected Fleets 422
Infrastructure and Mass Transit 422
An IoT Architecture for Transportation 427
IoT Technologies for Roadways 427
Connected Roadways Network Architecture 434
Extending the Roadways IoT Architecture to Bus Mass Transit 440
Extending Bus IoT Architecture to Railways 442
Summary 447
References 448
Chapter 14 Mining 449
Mining Today and Its Challenges 451
Scale 451
Safety 455
Environment 455
Security 456
Volatile Markets 456
Challenges for IoT in Modern Mining 456
The OT Roles in Mining 456
Connectivity 457
An IoT Strategy for Mining 459
Improved Safety and Location Services 459
Location Services 461
Improved Efficiencies 464
Improved Collaboration 465
IoT Security for Mining 466
An Architecture for IoT in Mining 467
IEEE 802.11 as the IoT Access Layer 468
802.11 Outdoor Wireless Mesh 468
4G/LTE 474
Wireless in Underground Mining 475
Industrial Wireless 476
Isolated vs. Connected Mine Networks 476
Core Network Connectivity 478
Network Design Consideration for Mining Applications 479
Data Processing 480
Summary 481
Chapter 15 Public Safety 483
Overview of Public Safety 484
Public Safety Objects and Exchanges 484
Public and Private Partnership for Public Safety IoT 486
Public Safety Adoption of Technology and the IoT 488
An IoT Blueprint for Public Safety 489
Mission Continuum 489
Mission Fabric 490
Inter-agency Collaboration 491
Emergency Response IoT Architecture 493
Mobile Command Center 494
Mobile Vehicles: Land, Air, and Sea 501
IoT Public Safety Information Processing 506
School Bus Safety 508
Bus Location and Student Onboarding/Offboarding 508
Driver Behavior Reporting 510
Diagnostic Reporting 511
Video Surveillance 511
Student Wi-Fi 513
Push-to-Talk Communication 513
School Bus Safety Network Architecture 513
Summary 514
Reference 515
9781587144561, TOC, 5/16/2017

David Hanes, CCIE No. 3491, is a Technical Leader specializing in IoT and working in Cisco Technical Services as part of the Cloud Support Technical Assistance Center (TAC). With experience in the incubation of new technologies, he is currently leading the TAC support effort for Cisco’s IoT cloud solutions. He also has technical expertise in the areas of collaboration and cognitive computing.


David has multiple patents issued and pending in the areas of IoT and collaboration. He is an active participant in the SIP Forum and in the IETF as an RFC contributor and author. David has written and contributed to various industry publications and white papers and is a coauthor of the Cisco Press book Fax, Modem, and Text for IP Telephony. He has spoken at industry and technical conferences worldwide and has been honored as a Hall of Fame speaker by Cisco Live.


Since joining Cisco in 1997, David has worked as a TAC engineer for the WAN, WAN Switching, and Multiservice Voice teams; as a team lead for the Multiservice Voice team; as an escalation engineer covering a variety of VoIP technologies; and as a field trial support engineer. Prior to working at Cisco, David was a systems engineer for Sprint, where he gained his first computer networking experience working on the Frame Relay and X.25 protocols. He holds a degree in electrical engineering from North Carolina State University.


Gonzalo Salgueiro, CCIE No. 4541, is a Principal Engineer in Technical Services, working on several emerging technologies and the services opportunities they offer. Gonzalo has spent more than 20 years at Cisco, establishing himself as a subject matter expert, innovator, and industry thought leader in various technologies, including Collaboration, ML/AI, Cloud, and IoT.


Gonzalo is an established member of numerous industry organizations and is a regular presenter and distinguished speaker at a variety of technical industry conferences and Cisco events around the world. He currently holds various industry leadership roles, including serving as a member of the Board of Directors of the SIP Forum, co-chair of the INSIPID and SIPBRANDY IETF working groups, member of the IoT Directorate in the IETF, and co-chair of the WebRTC Task Group, IPv6 Task Group, and FoIP Task Group in the SIP Forum. He is an active contributor to various industry organizations and standardization activities.


Gonzalo co-authored the Cisco Press book Fax, Modem, and Text for IP Telephony. He has also co-authored 24 IETF RFCs, 4 IEEE papers, 4 ITU contributions, and numerous industry and academic research papers on a variety of different technical topics. He is also coinventor of 65+ patents (issued and pending) and has contributed to various interop and open source development efforts. Gonzalo received a master’s degree in physics from the University of Miami.


Patrick Grossetete is a Distinguished Engineer, Technical Marketing, working on field communication architecture and design (IEEE 802.15.4g/e RF, IEEE 1901.2a PLC, LoRaWAN, IPv6, 6LoWPAN, RPL, …) in the Cisco Internet of Things Connected Group.


He joined Cisco through its acquisition of Arch Rock, where he was Director of Product Management and Customer Solutions, focusing on IPv6-based wireless sensor network technology for smart grid, energy, and environmental optimization applications.


Previously, Patrick led a product management team at Cisco, responsible for a suite of Cisco IOS software technologies, including IPv6 and IP Mobility. Patrick regularly speaks at conferences and industry events, including the IPv6 Forum, which he joined in 1999 as a Cisco representative. Patrick also acts as reviewer on European Commission–sponsored projects, including GEANT and ENVIROFI.


Patrick is coauthor of the books Global IPv6 Strategies and Deploying IPv6 Networks, published by Cisco Press, as well as several white papers, such as Unified Field Area Network Architecture for Distribution Automation (2014) and IPv6 Architecture for Field Area Networks (2012). In June 2003, he received the IPv6 Forum Internet Pioneer Award at the San Diego Summit, and he is an IPv6 Forum Fellow. Before his days at Cisco and Arch Rock, he worked at Digital Equipment Corporation as a consulting engineer and was involved with network design and deployment. He received a degree in computer science from the Control Data Institute, Paris, France.


Rob Barton, CCIE No. 6660 (R&S and Security), CCDE No. 2013:6, is a Principal Systems Engineer working in Cisco’s Digital Transformation and Innovation organization. Rob is a registered professional engineer (P.Eng) and has worked in the IT industry for more than 20 years, the last 17 of which have been at Cisco. Rob graduated from the University of British Columbia with a degree in engineering physics, where he specialized in computer
and radio communications. Rob’s areas of interest include wireless communications, IPv6, IoT, and industrial control systems. Rob coauthored the Cisco Press book End-to-End QoS, 2nd edition. He resides in Vancouver, Canada, with his wife and two children.


Jerome Henry, CCIE No. 24750, is a Principal Engineer in the Enterprise Infrastructure and Solutions Group at Cisco systems. Jerome has more than 15 years’ experience teaching technical Cisco courses in more than 15 countries and 4 languages, to audiences ranging from bachelor’s degree students to networking professionals and Cisco internal system engineers. Focusing on his wireless and networking experience, Jerome joined Cisco in 2012. Before that time, he was consulted and taught heterogeneous networks and wireless integration with the European Airespace team, which was later acquired by Cisco to become their main wireless solution. He then spent several years with a Cisco Learning partner, developing networking courses and working on training materials for emerging technologies.


Jerome is a certified wireless networking expert (CWNE No. 45) and has developed multiple Cisco courses and authored several wireless books and video courses. Jerome is also a member of the IEEE, where he was elevated to Senior Member in 2013, and also participates with Wi-Fi Alliance working groups, with a strong focus on IoT and low power. With more than 10,000 hours in the classroom, Jerome was awarded the IT Training Award Best Instructor silver medal. He is based in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.