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Psychology: Pearson New International Edition

Psychology: Pearson New International Edition

From Inquiry to Understanding
2nd Edition

Scott Lilienfeld, Steven Lynn, Laura Namy, Nancy Woolf

Jul 2013, Paperback, 854 pages
ISBN13: 9781292021362
ISBN10: 1292021365
For orders to USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand or Japan visit your local Pearson website
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For introductory psychology courses at two- and four-year colleges and universities.

Providing the framework students need to go from inquiry to understanding by continuously modeling the application of six key principles of scientific thinking. Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding teaches students how to test their assumptions, and motivates them to use scientific thinking skills to better understand the field of psychology and the world around them.

1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking: A Framework for Everyday Life

2: Research Methods: Safeguards against Error

3: Biological Psychology: Bridging the Levels of Analysis

4: Sensation and Perception: How We Sense and Conceptualize the World

5: Consciousness: Expanding the Boundaries of Psychological Inquiry

6: Learning: How Nurture Changes Us

7: Memory: Constructing and Reconstructing Our Pasts

8: Language, Thinking, and Reasoning: Getting Inside Our Talking Heads

9: Intelligence and IQ Testing: Controversy and Consensus

10: Human Development: How and Why We Change

11: Emotion and Motivation: What Moves Us

12: Stress, Coping, and Health: The Mind–Body Interconnection

13: Social Psychology: How Others Affect Us

14: Personality: Who We Are

15: Psychological Disorders: When Adaptation Breaks Down

16: Psychological and Biomedical Treatments: Helping People Change

1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking: A Framework for Everyday Life

What Is Psychology? Science versus Intuition

Psychology and Levels of Analysis

What Makes Psychology Challenging—and Fascinating

Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense

Psychology as a Science

Metaphysical Claims: The Boundaries of Science

Recognizing that We Might Be Wrong

Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

The Amazing Growth of Popular Psychology

What Is Pseudoscience?

PsychoMythology:The Hot Hand: Reality or Illusion?

The Dangers of Pseudoscience: Why Should We Care?

Scientific Thinking: Distinguishing Fact from Fiction

Scientific Skepticism

A Basic Framework for Scientific Thinking

Evaluating Claims: Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables

Psychology’s Past and Present: What a Long, Strange Trip It’s Been

The Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology

The Multifaceted World of Modern Psychology

The Great Debates of Psychology

How Psychology Affects Our Lives

Your Complete Review System

2: Research Methods: Safeguards against Error

The Beauty and Necessity of Good Research Design

Why We Need Research Designs

Heuristics and Biases: How We Can Be Fooled

Cognitive Biases

The Scientific Method: Toolbox of Skills

Naturalistic Observation: Studying Humans “In the Wild”

Case Study Designs: Getting to Know You

Self-Report Measures and Surveys: Asking People about Themselves and Others

Correlational Designs

Experimental Designs

PsychoMythology:Laboratory Research Doesn’t Apply to the Real World, Right?

Ethical Issues in Research Design

Tuskegee: A Shameful Moral Tale

Ethical Guidelines for Human Research

Ethical Issues in Animal Research

Statistics: The Language of Psychological Research

Descriptive Statistics: What’s What?

Inferential Statistics: Testing Hypotheses

How People Lie with Statistics

Evaluating Psychological Research

Becoming a Peer Reviewer

Most Reporters Aren’t Scientists: Evaluating Psychology in the Media

Evaluating Claims:Hair-Loss Remedies
Your Complete Review System

3: Biological Psychology: Bridging the Levels of Analysis

Nerve Cells: Communication Portals

Neurons: The Brain’s Communicators

Electrifying Thought

Chemical Communication: Neurotransmission

Neural Plasticity: How and When the Brain Changes

The Brain–Behavior Network

The Central Nervous System: The Command Center

The Peripheral Nervous System

The Endocrine System

The Pituitary Gland the Pituitary Hormones

The Adrenal Glands and Adrenaline

Sexual Reproductive Glands and Sex Hormones

Mapping the Mind: The Brain in Action

A Tour of Brain-Mapping Methods

How Much of Our Brain Do We Use?

Which Parts of Our Brain Do We Use for What?

Which Side of Our Brain Do We Use for What?

Psychomythology:Are there Left-Brained versus Right-Brained Persons?

Evaluating Claims: Diagnosing Your Brain Orientation

Nature and Nurture: Did Your Genes—or Parents—Make You Do It?

How We Came to Be Who We Are

Behavioral Genetics: How We Study Heritability

Your Complete Review System

4: Sensation and Perception: How We Sense and Conceptualize the World

Two Sides of the Coin: Sensation and Perception

Sensation: Our Senses as Detectives

Perception: When Our Senses Meet Our Minds

Extrasensory Perception (ESP): Fact or Fiction?

Evaluating Claims:Subliminal Persuasion CDs

Seeing: The Visual System

Light: The Energy of Life

The Eye: How We Represent the Visual Realm

Visual Perception

When We Can’t See or Perceive Visually

Hearing: The Auditory System

Sound: Mechanical Vibration

The Structure and Function of the Ear

Auditory Perception

When We Can’t Hear

Smell and Taste: The Sensual Senses

What Are Odors and Flavors?

Sense Receptors for Smell and Taste

Olfactory and Gustatory Perception

When We Can’t Smell or Taste

Our Body Senses: Touch, Body Position, and Balance

The Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Proprioception and Vestibular Sense: Body Position and Balance

PsychoMythology:Psychic Healing of Chronic Pain

Your Complete Review System

5: Consciousness: Expanding the Boundaries of Psychological Inquiry

The Biology of Sleep

The Circadian Rhythm: The Cycle of Everyday Life

Stages of Sleep

Lucid Dreaming

Disorders of Sleep

Dreams

Freud’s Dream Protection Theory

Activation–Synthesis Theory

Dreaming and the Forebrain

Neurocognitive Perspectives on Dreaming

Evaluating Claims: Dream Interpretations

Other Alterations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences

Hallucinations: Experiencing What Isn’t There

Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experiences

Déjà vu Experiences

Hypnosis

PsychoMythology:Age Regression and Past Lives

Drugs and Consciousness

Substance Abuse and Dependence

Depressants

Stimulants

Narcotics

Psychedelics

Your Complete Review System

6: Learning: How Nurture Changes Us

Classical Conditioning

Pavlov’s Discoveries

Principles of Classical Conditioning

Higher-Order Conditioning

Applications of Classical Conditioning to Daily Life

PsychoMythology: Are We What We Eat?

Operant Conditioning

Distinguishing Operant Conditioning from Classical Conditioning

The Law of Effect

B. F. Skinner and Reinforcement

Terminology of Operant Conditioning

Schedules of Reinforcement

Applications of Operant Conditioning

Putting Classical and Operant Conditioning Together

Cognitive Models of Learning

S-O-R Psychology: Throwing Thinking Back into the Mix

Latent Learning

Observational Learning

New Frontiers: Mirror Neurons and Observational Learning

Insight Learning

Biological Influences on Learning

Conditioned Taste Aversions

Preparedness and Phobias

Instinctive Drift

Learning Fads: Do They Work?

Sleep-Assisted Learning

Accelerated Learning

Discovery Learning

Learning Styles

Evaluating Claims:Sleep-Assisted Learning

Your Complete Review System

7: Memory: Constructing and Reconstructing Our Pasts

How Memory Operates: The Memory Assembly Line

The Paradox of Memory

The Reconstructive Nature of Memory

The Three Systems of Memory

The Three Processes of Memory

Encoding: The “Call Numbers” of the Mind

Storage: Filing Our Memories Away

Retrieval: Heading for the “Stacks”

PsychoMythology:Smart Pills

Evaluating Claims:Memory Boosters

The Biology of Memory

The Neural Basis of Memory Storage

Where Is Memory Stored?

The Biology of Memory Deterioration

The Development of Memory: Acquiring a Personal History

Memory over Time

Infants’ Implicit Memory: Talking with Their Feet

Infantile Amnesia

False Memories: When Good Memory Goes Bad

False Memories

Implanting False Memories in the Lab

Generalizing from the Lab to Real World

The Seven Sins of Memory

Your Complete Review System

8: Language, Thinking, and Reasoning: Getting Inside Our Talking Heads

How Does Language Work?

The Features of Language

How Did Language Come About and Why?

How Do Children Learn Language?

Special Cases of Language Learning

Critical Periods for Language Learning

Theoretical Accounts of Language Acquisition

Nonhuman Animal Communication

PsychoMythology: Do Twins Have Their Own Language?

Do We Think in Words? The Relation between Language and Thought

Linguistic Determinism: We Speak, Therefore We Think

Linguistic Relativity: Language Gives Thought a Gentle Nudge

Reading: Recognizing the Written Word

Learning to Read

Speed-Reading—A Hoax in Sheep’s Clothing?

Evaluating Claims: Speed Reading Courses

Thinking and Reasoning

Cognitive Economy—Imposing Order on Our World

Decision Making: Choices, Choices, and More Choices

Problem Solving: Accomplishing Our Goals

Models of the Mind

Your Complete Review System

9: Intelligence and IQ Testing: Controversy and Consensus

What Is Intelligence? Definitional Confusion

Intelligence as Sensory Capacity: Out of Sight, Out of Mind

Intelligence as Abstract Thinking

Intelligence as General versus Specific Abilities

Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

Multiple Intelligences: Different Ways of Being Smart

Biological Bases of Intelligence

Intelligence Testing: The Good, the Bad, and theUgly

How We Calculate IQ

The Eugenics Movement: Misuses and Abuses of IQ Testing

IQ Testing Today

College Admissions Tests: What Do They Measure?

Reliability of IQ Scores: Is IQ Forever?

Validity of IQ Scores: Predicting Life Outcomes

A Tale of Two Tails: From Mental Retardation to Genius

PsychoMythology:Do Standardized Tests Predict Grades?

Genetic and Environmental Influences on IQ

Exploring Genetic Influences on IQ

Exploring Environmental Influences on IQ

Evaluating Claims: IQ Boosters

Group Difference in IQ: The Science and the Politics

Sex Differences in IQ and Mental Abilities

Racial Differences in IQ

The Rest of the Story: Other Dimensions of Intellect

Creativity

Interests and Intellect

Emotional Intelligence: Is EQ as Important as IQ?

Why Smart People Believe Strange Things

Wisdom

Your Complete Review System

10: Human Development: How and Why We Change

Special Considerations in Human Development

Post Hoc Fallacy

Bidirectional Influences

Keeping an Eye on Cohort Effects

The Influence of Early Experience

Clarifying the Nature–Nurture Debate

The Developing Body: Physical and Motor Development

Conception and Prenatal Development: From Zygote to Baby

Infant Motor Development: How Babies Get Going

Growth and Physical Development throughout Childhood

Physical Maturation in Adolescence: The Power of Puberty

Physical Development in Adulthood

Evaluating Claims:Anti-Aging Treatments

The Developing Mind: Cognitive Development

Theories of Cognitive Development

Cognitive Landmarks of Early Development

Cognitive Changes in Adolescence

Cognitive Function in Adulthood

PsychoMythology:The Mozart Effect, Baby Einstein, and Creating “Superbabies”

The Developing Personality: Social and Moral Development

Social Development in Infancy and Childhood

Social and Emotional Development in Adolescence

Life Transitions in Adulthood

Your Complete Review System

11: Emotion and Motivation: What Moves Us

Theories of Emotion: What Causes Our Feelings?

Discrete Emotions Theory: Emotions as Evolved Expressions

Cognitive Theories of Emotion: Think First, Feel Later

Unconscious Influences on Emotion

Nonverbal Expression of Emotion: The Eyes, Bodies, and Cultures Have It

The Importance of Nonverbal Cues

Body Language and Gestures

Personal Space

Lying and Lie Detection

PsychoMythology:Is “Truth Serum” Really a Truth Serum?

Happiness and Self-Esteem: Science Confronts Pop Psychology

Positive Psychology: Psychology’s Future or Psychology’s Fad?

What Happiness Is Good For

What Makes Us Happy: Myths and Realities

Forecasting Happiness

Self-Esteem: Important or Over-hyped?

Motivation: Our Wants and Needs

Motivation: A Beginner’s Guide

Hunger, Eating, and Eating Disorders

Sexual Motivation

Evaluating Claims: Diets and Weight-Loss Plans

Attraction, Love, and Hate: The Greatest Mysteries of Them All

Social Influences on Interpersonal Attraction

Love: Science Confronts the Mysterious

Your Complete Review System

12: Stress, Coping, and Health: The Mind–Body Interconnection

What Is Stress?

Stress in the Eye of the Beholder: Three Approaches

No Two Stresses Are Created Equal: Measuring Stress

How We Adapt to Stress: Change and Challenge

The Mechanics of Stress: Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome

The Diversity of Stress Responses

PsychoMythology:Almost All People Are Traumatized by Highly Aversive Events

The Brain–Body Reaction to Stress

The Immune System

Psychoneuroimmunology: Our Bodies, Our Environments, and Our Health

Stress-Related Illnesses: A Biopsychosocial View

Coping with Stress

Social Support

Gaining Control

Flexible Coping

Individual Differences: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Personality

Evaluating Claims:Stress Reduction and Relaxation Techniques

Promoting Good Health—and Less Stress!

Toward a Healthy Lifestyle

Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Your Complete Review System

13: Social Psychology: How Others Affect Us

What Is Social Psychology?

Humans as a Social Species

The Fundamental Attribution Error: The Great Lesson of Social Psychology

Social Comparison: Person See, Person Do

Social Influence: Conformity and Obedience

Conformity: The Asch Paradigm

Deindividuation: Losing Our Typical Identities

Groupthink

Obedience: The Psychology of Following Orders

Helping and Harming Others: Prosocial Behavior and Aggression

Safety in Numbers or Danger in Numbers? Bystander Nonintervention

Social Loafing: With a Little Too Much Help from My Friends

Prosocial Behavior and Altruism

Aggression: Why We Hurt Others

PsychoMythology:Is Brainstorming in Groups a Good Way to Generate Ideas?

Attitudes and Persuasion: Changing Minds

Attitudes and Behavior

Origins of Attitudes

Attitude Change: Wait, Wait, I Just Changed My Mind

Persuasion: Humans as Salespeople

Evaluating Claims:Work-from-Home Jobs

Prejudice and Discrimination

The Nature of Prejudice

Discrimination

Stereotypes

Roots of Prejudice: A Tangled Web

Prejudice “Behind the Scenes”

Combating Prejudice: Some Remedies

Your Complete Review System

14: Personality: Who We Are

Personality: What Is It and How Can We Study It?

Researching the Causes of Personality: Overview of Twin and Adoption Studies

Birth Order: Does It Matter?

Behavior-Genetic Studies: A Note of Caution

Psychoanalytic Theory: The Controversial Legacy of Sigmund Freud and His Followers

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality

The Id, Ego, and Superego: The Structure of Personality

Stages of Psychosexual Development

Psychoanalytic Theory Evaluated Scientifically

Freud’s Followers: The Neo-Freudians

Behavioral and Social Learning Theories of Personality

Behavioral Views of the Causes of Personality

Social Learning Theories of Personality: The Causal Role of Thinking Resurrected

Behavioral and Social Learning Theories Evaluated Scientifically

Humanistic Models of Personality: The Third Force

Rogers and Maslow: Self-Actualization Realized and Unrealized

Humanistic Models Evaluated Scientifically

Trait Models of Personality: Consistencies in Our Behavior

Identifying Traits: Factor Analysis

The Big Five Model of Personality

Basic Tendencies versus Characteristic Adaptations

Can Personality Traits Change?

Trait Models Evaluated Scientifically

Personality Assessment: Measuring and Mismeasuring the Psyche

Famous—and Infamous—Errors in Personality Assessment

Structured Personality Tests

Projective Tests

Common Pitfalls in Personality Assessment

PsychoMythology:How Accurate Is Criminal Profiling?

Evaluating Claims:Online Personality Tests

Your Complete Review System

15: Psychological Disorders: When Adaptation Breaks Down

Conceptions of Mental Illness: Yesterday and Today

What Is Mental Illness? A Deceptively Complex Question

Historical Conceptions of Mental Illness: From Demons to Asylums

Psychiatric Diagnoses Across Cultures

Special Considerations in Psychiatric Classification and Diagnosis

Psychiatric Diagnosis Today: The DSM-IV

Evaluating Claims:Online Tests for Mental Disorders

PsychoMythology:The Insanity Defense: Free Will versus Determinism

Anxiety Disorders: The Many Faces of Worry and Fear

Panic Disorder: Terror That Comes out of the Blue

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Perpetual Worry

Phobias: Irrational Fears

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Enduring Effects of Experiencing Horror

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Trapped in One’s Thoughts

Explanations for Anxiety Disorders: The Roots of Pathological Worry and Fear

Mood Disorders and Suicide

Major Depressive Disorder: Common, But Not the Common Cold

Explanations for Major Depressive Disorder: A Tangled Web

Bipolar Disorder: When Mood Goes to Extremes

Suicide: Facts and Fiction

Personality and Dissociative Disorders: The Disrupted and Divided Self

Personality Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

The Enigma of Schizophrenia

Symptoms of Schizophrenia: The Shattered Mind

Explanations for Schizophrenia: The Roots of a Shattered Mind

Childhood Disorders: Recent Controversies

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder

Your Complete Review System

16: Psychological and Biomedical Treatments: Helping People Change

Psychotherapy: Clients and Practitioners

Who Seeks and Benefits from Treatment?

Who Practices Psychotherapy?

Insight Therapies: Acquiring Understanding

Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Therapies: Freud’s Legacy

Humanistic Psychotherapy: Achieving Our Potential

Group Therapies: The More, the Merrier

Family Therapies: Treating the Dysfunctional Family System

Behavioral Approaches: Changing Maladaptive Actions

Systematic Desensitization and Exposure Therapies: Learning Principles in Action

Modeling in Therapy: Learning by Watching

Operant Procedures: Consequences Count

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies: Learning to Think Differently

Is Psychotherapy Effective?

The Dodo Bird Verdict: Alive or Extinct?

How Different Groups of People Respond to Psychotherapy

Common Factors

Empirically Supported Treatments

Why Can Ineffective Therapies Appear to Be Helpful? How We Can Be Fooled

Evaluating Claims:Psychotherapies

PsychoMythology:Are Self-Help Books Always Helpful?

Biomedical Treatments: Medications, Electrical Stimulation, and Surgery

Psychopharmacotherapy: Targeting Brain Chemistry

Electrical Stimulation: Conceptions and Misconceptions

Psychosurgery: An Absolute Last Resort

Your Complete Review System

LILIENFELD provides the framework for students to go from inquiry to understanding.

This framework includes:

The Six Principles of Scientific Thinking.

  1. Extraordinary Claims tells us that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.
    For Example: The claim that a monster, like Bigfoot, has been living in the American Northwest for decades without being discovered by researchers requires more rigorous evidence.
  2. Falsifiability. For a claim to be meaningful, it must in principle be falsifiable, that is, capable of being disproven.
    For Example: The claim that "all human beings have invisible souls" isn't necessarily wrong but it is unfalsifiable because no evidence could conceivably disprove it.
  3. Occam’s Razor (Also called the “principle of parsimony”). If two explanations for a phenomenon are equally good, we should generally select the simpler one.
    For Example: If a person with poor vision spots a flying saucer during a Frisbee tournament on a foggy day, it's more likely that his UFO report is due to a simpler explanation--mistaking a frisbee for a UFO.
  4. Replicability. When evaluating a psychological claim, ask yourself whether the findings that support this claim have been replicated by independent investigators.
    For Example: If a researcher finds that people who practice meditation score 50 points higher on an IQ test than people who don't, but no one else can duplicate the finding, we should be skeptical of it.
  5. Ruling Out Rival Hypotheses. Whenever you evaluate a psychological claim, ask yourself whether alternative explanations for this claim have been excluded, or whether the claim could be explained in other ways.
    For Example: If an investigator finds that depressed people who receive a new medication improve more than equally depressed people who receive nothing, this difference may be due to the people who received the medication expected to improve.
  6. Correlation vs. Causation. A correlation between two things doesn’t prove a causal connection between them.
    For Example: The finding that people eat more ice cream on days when many crimes are committed doesn't mean eating ice cream causes crime.

Your Complete Review System: A unique 4-page interactive end-of-chapter review system ensures that students have mastered the chapter content. Organized around the key sections of the chapters, Your Complete Review System offers:

  • Numbered learning objectives and section summaries
  • Visual activities, such as labeling of figures and completion of summary tables, help students review key concepts
  • Test questions (on text and visual images) allow students to assess their knowledge of the material
  • Key terms list with page references
  • NEW “Apply Your Scientific Thinking Skills” questions are tied to outside research assignments; sample answers are provided in the Instructor's Resource Manual
  • Answers are located at the end of the text

Preview Questions Each chapter begins with a set of questions designed to tap into students' intuitive conceptions--and misconceptions--regarding the subject matter.

Assess Your Knowledge: Fact or Fiction? self-tests close each major section with a series of true-or-false statements (answers provided) to enable students to check their understanding before moving onto the next section. This review of selected material is designed to reinforce concept comprehension and advance their ability to distinguish psychological fact from fiction.

NEW Evaluating Claims feature in every chapter allows students to use their scientific thinking skills to evaluate claims based on those found in actual advertisements and websites. Answers are provided at the end of the text.

NEW Interactive photo captions – with answers - test students’ knowledge of the material and their ability to think scientifically.

NEWMyPsychLab icons highlight additional videos, simulations, and review and assessment material available on MyPsychLab

PsychoMythology boxes present students with common psychological misconceptions from everyday life. With an emphasis on the scientific methods necessary to separate accurate from inaccurate claims, the Psychomythology boxes help students recognize that their "common-sense" intuitions about psychology are not always correct.

Factoids/Fictoids present interesting and surprising facts (Factoids) or widely held unsupported or false beliefs (Fictoids). In both cases, students will find their beliefs of psychology challenged and their perspectives broadened.

Numbered Learning Objectives are located at the beginning of every major section and are tied to the chapter summary and review material, giving students a framework for studying.

Striking visuals and an uncluttered “back to basics” design, based on extensive market research and focus-group feedback, support student learning while enhancing reading enjoyment.

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