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Cyber-Physical Systems

Cyber-Physical Systems

Raj Rajkumar, Dionisio de Niz, Mark Klein

Apr 2017, Hardback, 416 pages
ISBN13: 9780321926968
ISBN10: 032192696X
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Learn the State of the Art in Embedded Systems and Embrace the Internet of Things

The next generation of mission-critical and embedded systems will be “cyber physical”: They will demand the precisely synchronized and seamless integration of complex sets of computational algorithms and physical components. Cyber-Physical Systems is the definitive guide to building cyber-physical systems (CPS) for a wide spectrum of engineering and computing applications.

Three pioneering experts have brought together the field’s most significant work in one volume that will be indispensable for all practitioners, researchers, and advanced students. This guide addresses CPS from multiple perspectives, drawing on extensive contributions from leading researchers.

The authors and contributors review key CPS challenges and innovations in multiple application domains. Next, they describe the technical foundations underlying modern CPS solutions—both what we know and what we still need to learn. Throughout, the authors offer guiding principles for every facet of CPS development, from design and analysis to planning future innovations.

Comprehensive coverage includes

  • Understanding CPS drivers, challenges, foundations, and emerging directions
  • Building life-critical, context-aware, networked systems of medical devices
  • Creating energy grid systems that reduce costs and fully integrate renewable energy sources
  • Modeling complex interactions across cyber and physical domains
  • Synthesizing algorithms to enforce CPS control
  • Addressing space, time, energy, and reliability issues in CPS sensor networks
  • Applying advanced approaches to real-time scheduling
  • Securing CPS: preventing “man-in-the-middle” and other attacks
  • Ensuring logical correctness and simplifying verification
  • Enforcing synchronized communication between distributed agents
  • Using model-integration languages to define formal semantics for CPS models

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Introduction xiii

Part I: Cyber-Physical System Application Domains 1

Chapter 1: Medical Cyber-Physical Systems 3

1.1 Introduction and Motivation 4

1.2 System Description and Operational Scenarios 5

1.3 Key Design Drivers and Quality Attributes 9

1.4 Practitioners’ Implications 48

1.5 Summary and Open Challenges 52

References 53

Chapter 2: Energy Cyber-Physical Systems 61

2.1 Introduction and Motivation 62

2.2 System Description and Operational Scenarios 63

2.3 Key Design Drivers and Quality Attributes 65

2.4 Cyber Paradigm for Sustainable SEES 79

2.5 Practitioners’ Implications 96

2.6 Summary and Open Challenges 97

References 100

Chapter 3: Cyber-Physical Systems Built on Wireless Sensor Networks 103

3.1 Introduction and Motivation 104

3.2 System Description and Operational Scenarios 105

3.3 Key Design Drivers and Quality Attributes 115

3.4 Practitioners’ Implications 122

3.5 Summary and Open Challenges 124

References 125

Part II: Foundations 131

Chapter 4: Symbolic Synthesis for Cyber-Physical Systems 133

4.1 Introduction and Motivation 134

4.2 Basic Techniques 135

4.3 Advanced Techniques 152

4.4 Summary and Open Challenges 158

References 159

Chapter 5: Software and Platform Issues in Feedback Control Systems 165

5.1 Introduction and Motivation 166

5.2 Basic Techniques 167

5.3 Advanced Techniques 171

5.4 Summary and Open Challenges 192

References 193

Chapter 6: Logical Correctness for Hybrid Systems 197

6.1 Introduction and Motivation 198

6.2 Basic Techniques 200

6.3 Advanced Techniques 221

6.4 Summary and Open Challenges 231

References 232

Chapter 7: Security of Cyber-Physical Systems 237

7.1 Introduction and Motivation 238

7.2 Basic Techniques 239

7.3 Advanced Techniques 248

7.4 Summary and Open Challenges 256

References 256

Chapter 8: Synchronization in Distributed Cyber-Physical Systems 259

8.1 Introduction and Motivation 259

8.2 Basic Techniques 262

8.3 Advanced Techniques 270

8.4 Summary and Open Challenges 282

References 283

Chapter 9: Real-Time Scheduling for Cyber-Physical Systems 289

9.1 Introduction and Motivation 290

9.2 Basic Techniques 291

9.3 Advanced Techniques 301

9.4 Summary and Open Challenges 325

References 325

Chapter 10: Model Integration in Cyber-Physical Systems 331

10.1 Introduction and Motivation 332

10.2 Basic Techniques 333

10.3 Advanced Techniques 338

10.4 Summary and Open Challenges 356

References 357

About the Authors 361

About the Contributing Authors 363

Index 371

  • Written by leaders in the field: a comprehensive guide to the latest research and practice, with contributions from several CPS pioneers
  • Introduces the challenges, foundations, innovations, and drivers of CPS
  • Offers guiding principles, from specific design and analysis advice to high-level perspectives
  • Includes expert contributions from several of the field's pioneers

Ragunathan (Raj) Rajkumar is the George Westinghouse Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. Among other companies like TimeSys, he founded Ottomatika, Inc., which focused on software for self-driving vehicles and was acquired by Delphi. He has chaired several international conferences, has three patents, has authored a book and co-edited another, and has published more than 170 refereed papers in conferences and journals. He received a B.E. (Hons.) degree from the University of Madras, India, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His research interests include all aspects of cyber-physical systems.

Dionisio de Niz is a Principal Researcher at the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. He received an M.S. in information networking from the Information Networking Institute and a Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from Carnegie Mellon University. His research interests include cyber-physical systems, real-time systems, and model-based engineering. In the real-time arena he has recently focused on multicore processors and mixed-criticality scheduling, and has led a number of projects on both fundamental research and applied research for the private industry and government organizations. He worked on the reference implementation and a commercial version of the Real-Time Java Specification.

Mark Klein is Senior Member of the Technical Staff at the Software Engineering Institute and is Technical Director of its Critical System Capabilities Directorate, which conducts research in cyber-physical systems and advanced mobile systems. His research has spanned various facets of software engineering, dependable real-time systems, and numerical methods. Klein’s most recent work focuses on design and analysis principles for systems at scale, including cyber-physical systems. He is co-author of many papers and three books: Ultra-Large-Scale Systems (Software Engineering Institute/Carnegie Mellon, 2006), Evaluating Software Architectures (Addison-Wesley, 2001), and A Practitioner’s Handbook for Real-Time Analysis (Springer, 1993).