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Beginning Behavioral Research

Beginning Behavioral Research

A Conceptual Primer: International Edition
7th Edition

Ralph Rosnow, Robert Rosenthal

Apr 2012, Paperback, 408 pages
ISBN13: 9780205085934
ISBN10: 0205085938
For orders to USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand or Japan visit your local Pearson website
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Continuing the Chain of Discovery and Understanding

Beginning Behavioral Research introduces students to the broad base and conceptual underpinnings of basic principles of ethical research with human participants from (a) the development of ideas and testable hypotheses, to (b) the selection of appropriate methods of measurement and data collection, to (c) the design and implementation of empirical research, to (d) the statistical analysis and interpretation of results, and finally, to (e) the reporting of findings and conclusions. The authors emphasize good research, empirical reasoning, and the continuity of psychological science in the continuing cycle of discovery and understanding.

The beginning in the title of this text is intended to have a double meaning. It not only describes the level of the material but also conveys the idea of a journey. For some students, the journey will be completed at the end of the course in which this text is used. For others, the journey will have just begun. In either case, students will have a deeper understanding of the applicability and limits of the scientific method. They will also have learned how to frame questions about the scientific results they read or hear about in the media in ways that will allow them to reach beyond other people’s conclusions or assertions and decide for themselves what is true.

Additional Learning Goals

Upon completing this book, students who are expected to conduct a research study should be able to:

  • Craft a research idea that can be empirically tested
  • Choose methods of data collection and measurement
  • Develop a research proposal
  • Design and implement the research study
  • Approach the research data
  • Test and evaluate hypotheses and explore the results
  • Report the research project in the APA style
Note: MySearchLab with eText does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab with eText, please visit www.mysearchlab.com or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab with eText (at no additional cost):

ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205871895 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205871896

In this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents

1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I GETTING STARTED

Chapter 1 Behavioral Research and the Scientific Method

Chapter 2 From Hunches to Testable Hypotheses

Chapter 3 Ethical Considerations and Guidelines

PART II OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT

Chapter 4 Methods of Systematic Observation

Chapter 5 Methods for Looking Within Ourselves

Chapter 6 Reliability and Validity in Measurement and Research

PART III DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 7 Randomized Experiments and Causal Inference

Chapter 8 Nonrandomized Research and Causal Reasoning

Chapter 9 Survey Research and Subject Recruitment

PART IV DESCRIBING DATA AND DRAWING INFERENCES

Chapter 10 Summarizing the Data

Chapter 11 Correlating Variables

Chapter 12 Understanding p Values and Effect Size Indicators

PART V STATISTICAL TESTS

Chapter 13 The Comparison of Two Conditions

Chapter 14 Comparisons of More Than Two Conditions

Chapter 15 The Analysis of Frequency Tables

Appendices

Appendix A Reporting Your Research Results

Appendix B Statistical Tables

Appendix C Introduction to Meta-Analysis

2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: Behavioral Research and the Scientific Method

Preview Questions

Why Study Research Methods and Data Analysis?

What Alternatives Are There to the Scientific Method?

How Do Scientists Use Empirical Reasoning?

How Is Empirical Reasoning Used in Behavioral Research?

How Do Extraempirical Factors Come Into Play?

What Does Behavioral Science Cover?

How Does Research Go From Descriptive to Relational to Experimental?

What Are the Characteristics of Good Researchers?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 2: From Hunches to Testable Hypotheses

Preview Questions

What Is Meant by a Cycle of Discovery and Justification?

What Are Hypothesis-Generating Heuristics?

What Is the Potential Role of Serendipity

How Can I Do a LiteratureSearch?

How Should I Go About Defining Variables?

What Identifies “Good” Theories and Working Hypotheses?

What Is the Distinction Between an Independent Variable and Dependent Variable?

What Belongs in My Research Proposal?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 3: Ethical Considerations and Guidelines

Preview Questions

How Do Ethical Guidelines in Research Function?

What Is Informed Consent, and When Is It Used?

How Are Ethics Reviews Done and Acted On?

What Are Obstacles to the Rendering of “Full Justice”?

How Can a “Relationship of Trust” Be Established?

How Do Scientific Quality and Ethical Quality Intertwine?

Is Deception in Research Ever Justified?

What Is the Purpose of Debriefing, and How Is It Done?

How Is Animal Research Governed by Ethical Rules?

What Ethical Responsibilities Are There When Writing Up Research?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 4: Methods of Systematic Observation

Preview Questions

What Is Meant by Systematic Observation?

How Do Researchers Simultaneously Participate and Observe?

What Can Be Learned from Quantifying Observations?

How Are Judgment Studies Done?

How Does Content Analysis Work?

How Are Situations Simulated in Controlled Settings?

What Are Plausible Rival Hypotheses and the Third-Variable Problem?

What Is the Distinction Between Reactive and Nonreactive Observation?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 5: Methods for Looking Within Ourselves

Preview Questions

What Are the Uses and Limitations of Self-Report Measures?

What Are Open-Ended and Fixed-Choice Items?

How Are Personality and Projective Tests Used?

What Is Meant By Measuring Implicit Attitudes?

What Are Numerical, Forced-Choice, and Graphic Ratings?

What Are Rating Errors, and How Are They Controlled?

What Is the Semantic Differential Method?

What Are Likert Scales and Thurstone Scales?

How Are Items Prepared for a Questionnaire or an Interview?

How Are Face-to-Face and Telephone Interviews Done?

How Are Behavioral Diaries Used in Research?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 6: Reliability and Validity in Measurement and Research

Preview Questions

What Is the Difference Between Validity and Reliability?

What Are Random and Systematic Errors?

What Is the Purpose of Retest and Alternate-Form Reliability?

What Is Internal-Consistency Reliability, and How Is It Increased?

What Is Acceptable Test-Retest and Internal-Consistency Reliability?

How Is the Reliability of Judges Measured?

How Is Reliability Related to Replication and External Validity?

How Are Content and Criterion Validity Defined?

How Is Construct Validity Assessed in Test Development?

How Is Construct Validity Relevant to Experimental Design?

What Is the Importance of Statistical-Conclusion Validity and Internal Validity?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 7: Randomized Experiments and Causal Inference

Preview Questions

What Is the Purpose of Randomized Experiments?

How Is Random Assignment Accomplished?

What Are Between-Subjects Designs?

What Is the Formative Logic of Experimental Control

What Are Within-Subjects Designs?

What Are Factorial Designs?

What Is Meant by Counterbalancing the Conditions?

Why Is Causality Said To Be “Shrouded in Mystery”?

How Do Scientists Logically Puzzle Out Efficient Causality?

What Conditions Pose a Threat to Internal Validity?

What Are Artifacts in Research?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 8: Nonrandomized Research and Causal Reasoning

Preview Questions

How Is Causal Reasoning Attempted in the Absence of Randomization?

How Is the Third-Variable Problem Relevant?

What Is Meant By Subclassification on Propensity Scores?

What Are Time-Series Designs and “Found Experiments”?

What Within-Subjects Designs Are Used in Single-Case Experiments?

How Are Correlations Interpreted in Cross-Lagged Panel Designs?

What Is the Purpose of Longitudinal Research Using Cohorts?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 9: Survey Research and Subject Recruitment

Preview Questions

What Are Opportunity and Probability Samples?

What Is Meant by Bias and Instability in Survey Research?

Why Do We Not Know “For Sure” the Bias in Sampling?

How Is Simple Random Sampling Done?

What Are Stratified Random Sampling and Area Probability Sampling?

What Did the Literary Digest Case Teach Pollsters?

What Are Point Estimates and Interval Estimates?

What Are the Benefits of Stratification?

How Is Nonresponse Bias Handled in Survey Research?

What Are the Typical Characteristics of Volunteer Subjects?

How Is Volunteer Bias in Opportunity Samples Managed?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 10: Summarizing the Data

Preview Questions

How Is Visual Integrity Ensured When Results Are Graphed?

How Are Frequencies Displayed in Tables, Bar Graphs, and Line Graphs?

How Do Stem-and-Leaf Charts Work?

How Are Percentiles Used to Summarize Part of a Batch?

How Is an Exploratory Data Analysis Done?

How Does Asymmetry Affect Measures of Central Tendency?

How Do I Measure How “Spread Out” a Set of Scores Is?

What Are Descriptive and Inferential Measures?

How Do I Estimate a Confidence Interval Around a Population Mean?

What Is Distinctive About the Normal Distribution?

Why Are z Scores Called Standard Scores, and How Are They Used?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 11: Correlating Variables

Preview Questions

What Are Different Forms of Correlations?

How Are Correlations Visualized in Scatter Plots?

How Is a Product-Moment Correlation Calculated?

How Is Dummy Coding Used in Correlation?

When Is the Phi Coefficient Used?

How Is a Correlation Calculated on Ranks?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 12: Understanding p Values and Effect Size Indicators

Preview Questions

Why Is It Important to Focus Not Just on p Values?

What Is the Reasoning Behind Null Hypothesis Significance Testing?

What Is the Distinction Between Type I and Type II Error?

What Are One-Tailed and Two-Tailed p Values?

What Is the Counternull Statistic?

What Is the Purpose of Doing a Power Analysis?

How Do I Estimate a Confidence Interval for an Effect Size Correlation?

What Can Effect Sizes Tell Us of Practical Importance?

What Does Killeen’s prep Tell Me?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 13: The Comparison of Two Conditions

Preview Questions

What Do Signal-to-Noise Ratios Have to Do With t Tests?

How Do I Compute an Independent-Sample t Test?

What Can a Table of p Values fort Teach Me?

What Is an Effect Size Index for an Independent-Sample t?

How Do I Interpret Cohen’sd for Independent Groups?

How Do I Compute Interval Estimates for Cohen’s d?

How Can I Maximize the Independent-Sample t?

How Does a Paired t Test Differ From an Independent-Sample t Test?

What Is an Effect Size Index for a Paired t?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 14: Comparisons of More Than Two Conditions

Preview Questions

What Is Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and How AreF and t Related?

How Is Variability Apportioned in a One-Way ANOVA?

How Are ANOVA Summary Tables Set Up and Interpreted?

How Can I Test for Simple Effects After an Omnibus F?

How Is Variability Apportioned in a Two-Way ANOVA?

How Do I Interpret Main and Interaction Effects?

How Is a Two-Way ANOVA Computed and a Summary Table Set Up?

What Are Contrasts, and How Do I Compute Them On More Than Two Groups?

What Do reffect size ralerting and rcontrast Tell Me?

How Are Contrasts on Multiple Repeated Measures Computed?

How Are Latin Square Designs Analyzed?

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 15: The Analysis of Frequency Tables

Preview Questions

What Is the Purpose of Chi-Square (X2)?

How Do I Compute 1-df Chi-Squares?

How Do I Obtain thep Value, Effect Size, and Confidence Interval?

What Is the Relationship Between 1df X2 and Phi?

How Do I Deal With Tables Larger Than 2X2?

How Is Standardizing the Margins Done, and What Can It Tell Me?

What Is a Binomial Effect-Size Display Used For?

A Journey Begun

Summary of Ideas

Key Terms

Multiple-Choice Questions for Review

Discussion Questions for Review

Answers to Review Questions

Appendix A Reporting Your Research Results

Research Reports in APA Style

Getting Started

Title Page

Abstract

Introduction

Method

Results

Discussion

References

Footnotes

Tables and Figures

Appendix

Writing and Revising

Appendix B Statistical Tables

B.1. z Values and Their Associated One-Tailedp Values

B.2. t Values and Their Associated One-Tailed and Two-Tailed p Values

B.3. F Values and Their Associated p Values

B.4. r2 Values and Their Associated p Values

B.5. r Values and Their Associated p Values

B.6. Transformations of r to Fisher zr

B.7. Transformations of Fisher zr to r

Appendix C Introduction to Meta-Analysis

The Purpose of Meta-Analysis

Some Pro and Con Arguments

Comparing Two Effect Sizes

Combining Two Effect Sizes

Obtaining an Overall Significance Level

Detective-Like Probing of Reported Data

The File Drawer Problem

Glossary of Terms

References

Name Index

Subject Index

  • Chapters follow a logical, linear sequence and include tutorials, a sample research proposal, and a sample research report. (ex. pg. 306)
  • Box discussions highlight and enliven concepts with practical examples and illustrations. (ex. pg. 223)
  • Preview questions open each chapter and serve as section headings in the material that follows. (ex. pg. 128)
  • Summary lists of statistical equations that are keyed to pages in the text are inside the front and back covers to use as reference.
  • Tabbed appendices make it easy to find instructions on reporting results in APA style, statistical tables, and an introduction to meta-analysis. (ex. pg. 338)
  • A summary of ideas, key terms, and multiple-choice and discussion questions and answers conclude each chapter to help students review the chapter materials. (ex. pg. 145)
  • A tabbed glossary keyed to particular chapters follows the appendices. (ex. pg. 344)

Available Supplementary Material

  • MySearchLab with eText can be packaged with this text.
    • MySearchLab provides engaging experiences that personalize learning.
    • eText — Just like the printed text, users can highlight and add notes to the eText or download it to your IPad.
    • Assessment — Chapter quizzes and flashcards offer immediate feedback and report directly to the instructor’s gradebook.
    • Writing and Research — A wide range of writing, grammar, and research tools and access to a variety of academic journals, census data, Associated Press newsfeeds, and discipline-specific readings help to hone students’ writing and research skills.
    • The New Experiments Tool allows students to experience psychology through online experiments that reinforce class lessons and textbook content.
    • Operation ARIES (Acquiring Research Investigative and Evaluative Skills) — An interactive role-play game that teaches research methods and critical thinking skills, this simulation features a “save the world” plot that requires students to learn and apply critical thinking skills and scientific principles to uncover and foil an extraterrestrial plot to colonize Earth. Authored by Keith Millis, Northern Illinois University, Art Graesser, University of Memphis, and Diane Halpern, Claremont McKenna College.

Ralph L. Rosnow is now Thaddeus Bolton Professor Emeritus at Temple University in Philadelphia, PA, where he taught courses in research methods and statistics for many years and directed the Ph.D. program in social and organizational psychology. He also taught research methods at Boston University in a master’s degree program in communication research and at Harvard University as a visiting professor in the psychology department.

http://astro.temple.edu/~rosnow

Robert Rosenthal is a Distinguished Professor at the University of California at Riverside and Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology, Emeritus, Harvard University. In the realm of statistical data analysis, his special interests are in experimental design and analysis, contrast analysis, and meta-analysis. He served as co-chair of the Task Force on Statistical Inference of the American Psychological Association.

http://psych.ucr.edu/faculty/rosenthal