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Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment

Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment

2nd Edition

W. Stevens, Stephen Rago

Jul 2005, Hardback, 960 pages
ISBN13: 9780201433074
ISBN10: 0201433079
This product has been replaced by Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment
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"Stephen Rago's update is a long overdue benefit to the community of professionals using the versatile family of UNIX and UNIX-like operating environments. It removes obsolescence and includes newer developments. It also thoroughly updates the context of all topics, examples, and applications to recent releases of popular implementations of UNIX and UNIX-like environments. And yet, it does all this while retaining the style and taste of the original classic."

--Mukesh Kacker, cofounder and former CTO of Pronto Networks, Inc.

"One of the essential classics of UNIX programming."

--Eric S. Raymond, author of The Art of UNIX Programming

"This is the definitive reference book for any serious or professional UNIX systems programmer. Rago has updated and extended the classic Stevens text while keeping true to the original. The APIs are illuminated by clear examples of their use. He also mentions many of the pitfalls to look out for when programming across different UNIX system implementations and points out how to avoid these pitfalls using relevant standards such as POSIX 1003.1, 2004 edition and the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3."

--Andrew Josey, Director, Certification, The Open Group, and Chair of the POSIX 1003.1 Working Group

"Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment, Second Edition, is an essential reference for anyone writing programs for a UNIX system. It's the first book I turn to when I want to understand or re-learn any of the various system interfaces. Stephen Rago has successfully revised this book to incorporate newer operating systems such as GNU/Linux and Apple's OS X while keeping true to the first edition in terms of both readability and usefulness. It will always have a place right next to my computer."

--Dr. Benjamin Kuperman, Swarthmore College

Praise for the First Edition

"Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment is a must-have for any serious C programmer who works under UNIX. Its depth, thoroughness, and clarity of explana-tion are unmatched."

--UniForum Monthly

"Numerous readers recommended Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment by W. Richard Stevens (Addison-Wesley), and I'm glad they did; I hadn't even heard of this book, and it's been out since 1992. I just got my hands on a copy, and the first few chapters have been fascinating."

--Open Systems Today

"A much more readable and detailed treatment of UNIX internals can be found in Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment by W. Richard Stevens (Addison-Wesley). This book includes lots of realistic examples, and I find it quite helpful when I have systems programming tasks to do."

--RS/Magazine

"This is the definitive reference book for any serious or professional UNIX systems programmer. Rago has updated and extended the original Stevens classic while keeping true to the original."

--Andrew Josey, Director, Certification, The Open Group, and Chair of the POSIX 1003.1 Working Group

For over a decade, serious C programmers have relied on one book for practical, in-depth knowledge of the programming interfaces that drive the UNIX and Linux kernels: W. Richard Stevens' Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment. Now, Stevens' colleague Stephen Rago has thoroughly updated this classic to reflect the latest technical advances and add support for today's leading UNIX and Linux platforms.

Rago carefully retains the spirit and approach that made this book a classic. Building on Stevens' work, he begins with basic topics such as files, directories, and processes, carefully laying the groundwork for understanding more advanced techniques, such as signal handling and terminal I/O.

Substantial new material includes chapters on threads and multithreaded programming, using the socket interface to drive interprocess communication (IPC), and extensive coverage of the interfaces added to the latest version of the POSIX.1 standard. Nearly all examples have been tested on four of today's most widely used UNIX/Linux platforms: FreeBSD 5.2.1; the Linux 2.4.22 kernel; Solaris 9; and Darwin 7.4.0, the FreeBSD/Mach hybrid underlying Apple's Mac OS X 10.3.

As in the first edition, you'll learn through example, including more than 10,000 lines of downloadable, ANSI C source code. More than 400 system calls and functions are demonstrated with concise, complete programs that clearly illustrate their usage, arguments, and return values. To tie together what you've learned, the book presents several chapter-length case studies, each fully updated for contemporary environments.

Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment has helped a generation of programmers write code with exceptional power, performance, and reliability. Now updated for today's UNIX/Linux systems, this second edition will be even more indispensable.



"Stephen Rago's update is a long overdue benefit to the community of professionals using the versatile family of UNIX and UNIX-like operating environments. It removes obsolescence and includes newer developments. It also thoroughly updates the context of all topics, examples, and applications to recent releases of popular implementations of UNIX and UNIX-like environments. And yet, it does all this while retaining the style and taste of the original classic."

--Mukesh Kacker, cofounder and former CTO of Pronto Networks, Inc.

"One of the essential classics of UNIX programming."

--Eric S. Raymond, author of The Art of UNIX Programming

"This is the definitive reference book for any serious or professional UNIX systems programmer. Rago has updated and extended the classic Stevens text while keeping true to the original. The APIs are illuminated by clear examples of their use. He also mentions many of the pitfalls to look out for when programming across different UNIX system implementations and points out how to avoid these pitfalls using relevant standards such as POSIX 1003.1, 2004 edition and the Single UNIX Specification, Version 3."

--Andrew Josey, Director, Certification, The Open Group, and Chair of the POSIX 1003.1 Working Group

"Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment, Second Edition, is an essential reference for anyone writing programs for a UNIX system. It's the first book I turn to when I want to understand or re-learn any of the various system interfaces. Stephen Rago has successfully revised this book to incorporate newer operating systems such as GNU/Linux and Apple's OS X while keeping true to the first edition in terms of both readability and usefulness. It will always have a place right next to my computer."

--Dr. Benjamin Kuperman, Swarthmore College

Praise for the First Edition

"Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment is a must-have for any serious C programmer who works under UNIX. Its depth, thoroughness, and clarity of explana-tion are unmatched."

--UniForum Monthly

"Numerous readers recommended Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment by W. Richard Stevens (Addison-Wesley), and I'm glad they did; I hadn't even heard of this book, and it's been out since 1992. I just got my hands on a copy, and the first few chapters have been fascinating."

--Open Systems Today

"A much more readable and detailed treatment of UNIX internals can be found in Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment by W. Richard Stevens (Addison-Wesley). This book includes lots of realistic examples, and I find it quite helpful when I have systems programming tasks to do."

--RS/Magazine

"This is the definitive reference book for any serious or professional UNIX systems programmer. Rago has updated and extended the original Stevens classic while keeping true to the original."

--Andrew Josey, Director, Certification, The Open Group, and Chair of the POSIX 1003.1 Working Group

For over a decade, serious C programmers have relied on one book for practical, in-depth knowledge of the programming interfaces that drive the UNIX and Linux kernels: W. Richard Stevens' Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment. Now, Stevens' colleague Stephen Rago has thoroughly updated this classic to reflect the latest technical advances and add support for today's leading UNIX and Linux platforms.

Rago carefully retains the spirit and approach that made this book a classic. Building on Stevens' work, he begins with basic topics such as files, directories, and processes, carefully laying the groundwork for understanding more advanced techniques, such as signal handling and terminal I/O.

Substantial new material includes chapters on threads and multithreaded programming, using the socket interface to drive interprocess communication (IPC), and extensive coverage of the interfaces added to the latest version of the POSIX.1 standard. Nearly all examples have been tested on four of today's most widely used UNIX/Linux platforms: FreeBSD 5.2.1; the Linux 2.4.22 kernel; Solaris 9; and Darwin 7.4.0, the FreeBSD/Mach hybrid underlying Apple's Mac OS X 10.3.

As in the first edition, you'll learn through example, including more than 10,000 lines of downloadable, ANSI C source code. More than 400 system calls and functions are demonstrated with concise, complete programs that clearly illustrate their usage, arguments, and return values. To tie together what you've learned, the book presents several chapter-length case studies, each fully updated for contemporary environments.

Advanced Programming in the UNIX® Environment has helped a generation of programmers write code with exceptional power, performance, and reliability. Now updated for today's UNIX/Linux systems, this second edition will be even more indispensable.



Foreword.

Preface.

Preface to the First Edition.

1. UNIX System Overview.

Introduction.

UNIX Architecture.

Logging In.

Files and Directories.

Input and Output.

Programs and Processes.

Error Handling.

User Identification.

Signals.

Time Values.

System Calls and Library Functions.

Summary.

2. UNIX Standardization and Implementations.

Introduction.

UNIX Standardization.

UNIX System Implementations.

Relationship of Standards and Implementations.

Limits.

Options.

Feature Test Macros.

Primitive System Data Types.

Conflicts Between Standards.

Summary.

3. File I/O.

Introduction.

File Descriptors.

open Function.

creat Function.

closeFunction.

lseek Function.

read Function.

write Function.

I/O Efficiency.

File Sharing.

Atomic Operations.

dup and dup2 Functions.

sync, fsync, and fdatasync Functions.

fcntl Function.

ioctl Function.

/dev/fd.

Summary.

4. Files and Directories.

Introduction.

stat, fstat, and lstat Functions.

File Types.

Set-User-ID and Set-Group-ID.

File Access Per missions.

Ownership of New Files and Directories.

access Function.

umask Function.

chmodand fchmod Functions.

Sticky Bit.

chown, fchown, and lchown Functions.

File Size.

File Truncation.

File Systems.

link, unlink, remove, and rename Functions.

Symbolic Links.

symlinkand readlink Functions.

File Times.

utime Function.

mkdirand rmdir Functions.

Reading Director ies.

chdir, fchdir, and getcwd Functions.

Device Special Files.

Summary of File Access Per mission Bits.

Summary.

5. Standard I/O Library.

Introduction.

Streams and FILE Objects.

Standard Input, Standard Output, and Standard Error.

Buffering.

Opening a Stream.

Reading and Writing a Stream.

Line-at-a-Time I/O.

Standard I/O Efficiency.

Binary I/O.

Positioning a Stream.

Formatted I/O.

Implementation Details.

Temporary Files.

Alternatives to Standard I/O.

Summary.

6. System Data Files and Information.

Introduction.

Password File.

Shadow Passwords.

Group File.

Supplementary Group Ids.

Implementation Differences.

Other Data Files.

Login Accounting.

System Identification.

Time and Date Routines.

Summary.

7. Process Environment.

Introduction.

main Function.

Process Termination.

Command-Line Arguments.

Environment List.

Memory Layout of a C Program.

Shared Libraries.

Memory Allocation.

Environment Variables.

setjmp and longjmp Functions.

getrlimit and setrlimit Functions.

Summary.

8. Process Control.

Introduction.

Process Identifiers.

fork Function.

vfork Function.

exit Functions.

waitand waitpid Functions.

waitid Function.

wait3and wait4Functions.

Race Conditions.

exec Functions.

Changing User IDs and Group IDs.

Interpreter Files.

system Function.

Process Accounting.

User Identification.

Process Times.

Summary.

9. Process Relationships.

Introduction.

Terminal Logins.

Network Logins.

Process Groups.

Sessions.

Controlling Terminal.

tcgetpgrp, tcsetpgrp, and tcgetsid Functions.

Job Control.

Shell Execution of Programs.

Orphaned Process Groups.

FreeBSD Implementation.

Summary.

10. Signals.

Introduction.

Signal Concepts.

signal Function.

Unreliable Signals.

Interrupted System Calls.

Reentrant Functions.

SIGCLD Semantics.

Reliable-Signal Terminology and Semantics.

killand raise Functions.

alarmand pause Functions.

Signal Sets.

sigprocmask Function.

sigpending Function.

sigaction Function.

sigsetjmp and siglongjmp Functions.

sigsuspend Function.

abort Function.

system Function.

sleep Function.

Job-Control Signals.

Additional Features.

Summary.

11. Threads.

Introduction.

Thread Concepts.

Thread Identification.

Thread Creation.

Thread Termination.

Thread Synchronization.

Summary.

12. Thread Control.

Introduction.

Thread Limits.

hread Attributes.

Synchronization Attributes.

Reentrancy.

Thread-Specific Data.

Cancel Options.

Threads and Signals.

Threads and fork.

Threads and I/O.

Summary.

13. Daemon Processes.

Introduction.

Daemon Characteristics.

Coding Rules.

Error Logging.

Single-Instance Daemons.

Daemon Conventions.

Client-Server Model.

Summary.

14. Advanced I/O.

Introduction.

Nonblocking I/O.

Record Locking.

STREAMS.

I/O Multiplexing.

2 poll Function.

Asynchronous I/O.

readv and writev Functions.

readn and written Functions.

Memory-Mapped I/O.

Summary.

15. Interprocess Communication.

Introduction.

Pipes.

popen and pclose Functions.

Coprocesses.

FIFOs.

XSI IPC.

Message Queues.

Semaphores.

Shared Memory.

Client-Server Properties.

Summary.

16. Network IPC: Sockets.

Introduction.

Socket Descriptors.

Addressing.

Connection Establishment.

Data Transfer.

Socket Options.

Out-of-Band Data.

Nonblocking and Asynchronous I/O.

Summary.

17 Advanced IPC.

Introduction.

STREAMS-Based Pipes.

Unique Connections.

Passing File Descriptors.

An Open Server, Version 1.

An Open Server, Version 2.

Summary.

18. Terminal I/O.

Introduction.

Overview.

Special Input Characters.

Getting and Setting Terminal Attributes.

Terminal Option Flags.

stty Command.

Baud Rate Functions.

Line Control Functions.

Terminal Identification.

Canonical Mode.

Noncanonical Mode.

Terminal Window Size.

termcap, terminfo, and curses.

Summary.

19. Pseudo Terminals.

Introduction.

Overview.

Opening Pseudo-Terminal Devices.

pty_fork Function.

pty Program.

Using the pty Program.

Advanced Features.

Summary.

20. A Database Library.

Introduction.

History.

The Library.

Implementation Overview.

Centralized or Decentralized?

Concurrency.

Building the Library.

Source Code.

Performance.

Summary.

21. Communicating with a Network Printer.

Introduction.

The Inter net Printing Protocol.

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

Printer Spooling.

Source Code.

Summary.

Appendix A. Function Prototypes.

Appendix B. Miscellaneous Source Code.

Our Header File.

Standard Error Routines.

Appendix C. Solutions to Selected Exercises.

Bibliography.

Index.

A major revision of the definitive guide to Unix system programming with sales exceeding 160,000 units!

° Describes and illustrates more than 200 system calls - the interface that programmers must master in order to access all major Unix internal resources.

° New Edition covers the final POSIX.1 standard as well as threads and multi-threaded programming.

° Includes all new examples, over 10,000 lines of code, running on Linux, Solaris, Free BSD and MAC OS X.

We are deeply saddened to learn of the death of noted author W. Richard Stevens. His passing is obviously a tremendous loss for the technical community, but it is a personal one for us as well. Rich was both a gifted colleague and a valued friend who will be greatly missed. We extend our sympathies to his family.

Obituary from the Arizona Daily Star:

STEVENS, W. Richard, noted author of computer books died on September 1. He is best known for his "UNIX Network Programming" series (1990, 1998, 1999), "Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment" (1992), and "TCP/IP Illustrated" series (1994, 1995, 1996). Richard was born in 1951 in Luanshya, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), where his father worked for the copper industry. The family moved to Salt Lake City, Hurley, New Mexico, Washington, DC and Phalaborwa, South Africa. Richard attended Fishburne Military School in Waynesboro, Virginia. He received a B.SC. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Michigan in 1973, and an M.S. (1978) and Ph.D. (1982) in Systems Engineering from the University of Arizona. He moved to Tucson in 1975 and from then until 1982 he was employed at Kitt Peak National Observatory as a computer programmer. From 1982 until 1990 he was Vice President of Computing Services at Health Systems International in New Haven, CT, moving back to Tucson in 1990. Here he pursued his career as an author and consultant. He was also an avid pilot and a part-time flight instructor during the 1970's.

He is survived by his loving wife of 20 years, Sally Hodges Stevens; three wonderful children, Bill, Ellen and David; sister, Claire Stevens of Las Vegas, NV; brother, Bob and wife Linda Stevens of Dallas, TX; nieces, Laura, Sarah, Collette, Christy; and nephew, Brad. He is predeceased by his parents, Royale J. Stevens (1915-1984); and Helen Patterson Stevens (1916-1997). Helen lived in Tucson from 1991-1997, and Royale lived here in the early 1930's attending Tucson High School while his father was treated for TB at the Desert Sanitorium (now TMC). The family asks that in lieu of flowers, donations be made in Richard's name to Habitat for Humanity, 2950 E. 22nd Street, Tucson, AZ 85713. A memorial service for Richard will be held at St. Phillip's in the Hills Episcopal Church on Tuesday, September 7th at 12:00 noon. Following the service there will be a reception in the Murphy Gallery of the Church. Please wear colorful clothing to the service; Richard loved colors.

W. Richard Stevens was an acknowledged UNIX and networking expert and the highly-respected author of several books. He was also a sought-after instructor and consultant.

Stephen A. Rago, one of the Bell Laboratories developers who built UNIX System V, Release 4, currently works as a manger at EMC, specializing in file servers and file systems.



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