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RFID

RFID

Applications, Security, and Privacy

Simson Garfinkel, Beth Rosenberg

Jul 2005, Hardback, 608 pages
ISBN13: 9780321290960
ISBN10: 0321290968
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“RFID is the first important technology of the twenty-first century. That’s an awesome responsibility. How can we know when and how RFID is being used? How can we make sure it is not misused? How can we exercise choice over how it affects us personally? How do we ensure it is safe? This book is a valuable contribution to the ongoing effort to find the answers.”
—From the Foreword by Kevin Ashton, cofounder and former executive director, Auto-ID Center; vice president, ThingMagic Corporation

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is rapidly becoming ubiquitous as businesses seek to streamline supply chains and respond to mandates from key customers. But RFID and other new wireless ID technologies raise unprecedented privacy issues. RFID: Applications, Security, and Privacy covers these issues from every angle and viewpoint.

Award-winning technology journalist and privacy expert Simson Garfinkel brings together contributions from every stakeholder community—from RFID suppliers to privacy advocates and beyond. His contributors introduce today’s leading wireless ID technologies, trace their evolution, explain their promise, assess their privacy risks, and evaluate proposed solutions—technical, business, and political. The book also looks beyond RFID, reviewing the privacy implications of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, smart cards, biometrics, new cell-phone networks, and the ever-evolving Internet. Highlights include

  • How RFID and other wireless ID technologies work
  • RFID applications—from gas stations and pharmacies to the twenty-first century battlefield
  • RFID, privacy, and the law—in the United States and around the world
  • RFID, security, and industrial espionage
  • How Bluetooth and Wi-Fi can track individuals, with or without their permission
  • Technical solutions to wireless ID privacy concerns—their values and limitations
  • Stakeholder perspectives from EPCglobal, Inc., Gemplus, The Procter & Gamble Company, and other industry leaders
  • The future of citizen activism on privacy issues

Clear, balanced, and accessible, this is the indispensable primer for everyone involved in RFID: businesses implementing or evaluating RFID; technology suppliers responding to user concerns; and policymakers and privacy advocates who want a deeper understanding of the technology and its implications.

Includes contributions from

AIM Global, Inc.
CASPIAN
Center for Democracy and Technology
EPCglobal, Inc.
The Galecia Group
Gemplus
IDAT Consulting & Education
Institute for the Future
Matrics, Inc.
MIT Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
MIT Media Laboratory
OATSystems
Privacy Journal
The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse
The Procter & Gamble Company
RSA Laboratories
UCLA Department of Geography
Wayne State University Law School



“RFID is the first important technology of the twenty-first century. That’s an awesome responsibility. How can we know when and how RFID is being used? How can we make sure it is not misused? How can we exercise choice over how it affects us personally? How do we ensure it is safe? This book is a valuable contribution to the ongoing effort to find the answers.”
—From the Foreword by Kevin Ashton, cofounder and former executive director, Auto-ID Center; vice president, ThingMagic Corporation

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is rapidly becoming ubiquitous as businesses seek to streamline supply chains and respond to mandates from key customers. But RFID and other new wireless ID technologies raise unprecedented privacy issues. RFID: Applications, Security, and Privacy covers these issues from every angle and viewpoint.

Award-winning technology journalist and privacy expert Simson Garfinkel brings together contributions from every stakeholder community—from RFID suppliers to privacy advocates and beyond. His contributors introduce today’s leading wireless ID technologies, trace their evolution, explain their promise, assess their privacy risks, and evaluate proposed solutions—technical, business, and political. The book also looks beyond RFID, reviewing the privacy implications of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, smart cards, biometrics, new cell-phone networks, and the ever-evolving Internet. Highlights include

  • How RFID and other wireless ID technologies work
  • RFID applications—from gas stations and pharmacies to the twenty-first century battlefield
  • RFID, privacy, and the law—in the United States and around the world
  • RFID, security, and industrial espionage
  • How Bluetooth and Wi-Fi can track individuals, with or without their permission
  • Technical solutions to wireless ID privacy concerns—their values and limitations
  • Stakeholder perspectives from EPCglobal, Inc., Gemplus, The Procter & Gamble Company, and other industry leaders
  • The future of citizen activism on privacy issues

Clear, balanced, and accessible, this is the indispensable primer for everyone involved in RFID: businesses implementing or evaluating RFID; technology suppliers responding to user concerns; and policymakers and privacy advocates who want a deeper understanding of the technology and its implications.

Includes contributions from

AIM Global, Inc.
CASPIAN
Center for Democracy and Technology
EPCglobal, Inc.
The Galecia Group
Gemplus
IDAT Consulting & Education
Institute for the Future
Matrics, Inc.
MIT Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
MIT Media Laboratory
OATSystems
Privacy Journal
The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse
The Procter & Gamble Company
RSA Laboratories
UCLA Department of Geography
Wayne State University Law School



Foreword.

Preface.

Acknowledgments.

I: PRINCIPLES.

1. Automatic Identification and Data Collection: What the Future Holds.

Introduction

A Brief History of AIDC

The "Industry" That Isn't

The Interconnected World

Clear and Present Benefits

Future Applications

Conclusions

2. Understanding RFID Technology.

Introduction

RFID Technology

RFID Applications

Conclusions

3. A History of the EPC.

Introduction

The Beginning

A Mini-Lecture: The Supply Chain

The Auto-ID Center

Harnessing the Juggernaut

Conclusions

4. RFID and Global Privacy Policy.

Introduction

Definitions of Privacy

Mapping the RFID Discovery Process

Privacy as a Fundamental Human Right

Privacy Through Data Protection Law and Fair Information Practices

Conclusions

5. RFID, Privacy, and Regulation.

Introduction

Some Current and Proposed RFID Applications

Whither Item-Level Tagging?

Understanding RFID's Privacy Threats

Conclusions

6. RFID and the United States Regulatory Landscape.

Introduction

Current State of RFID Policy

RFID Policy Issues

Government Versus Individual Context

Business Versus Individual Context

Industry Leadership

Options for Government Leadership

Snapshot of Current Status

Policy Prescriptions

The Case for, and Limits of, EPCglobal Leadership

Conclusions

7. RFID and Authenticity of Goods.

Introduction

A Few Important Concepts in Authentication

Authenticity of Tags and Authenticity of Goods

Authenticity of Goods and Anticounterfeiting Measures

Authentication of Readers

Authentication of Users Across the Supply Chain (Federation)

Conclusions

8. Location and Identity: A Brief History.

Introduction

Place and Identity in a World of Habits and Symbols

Locational Technologies

Rethinking Identity: Beyond Traits and Names

On RFID

Conclusions

9. Interaction Design for Visible Wireless.

Introduction

The Role of Interaction Design

A Common Vocabulary

Designing and Modifying WID Systems

Conclusions

II: APPLICATIONS.

10. RFID Payments at ExxonMobil.

Introduction

Interview with Joe Giordano, ExxonMobil Corporation

11. Transforming the Battlefield with RFID.

Introduction

Logistics and the Military

Conclusions

12. RFID in the Pharmacy: Q&A with CVS.

Introduction

CVS and Auto-ID

Project Jump Start

RFID in the Store

Making RFID Work: The Back End

13. RFID in Healthcare.

Introduction

Home Eldercare

Challenges

Conclusions

14. Wireless Tracking in the Library: Benefits, Threats, and Responsibilities.

Introduction

RFID System Components and Their Effects in Libraries

RFID Standards

RFID in U.S. Libraries

Best-Practices Guidelines for Library Use of RFID

Conclusions

15. Tracking Livestock with RFID.

Introduction

RFID Has to Prove Itself

Putting RFID to Work

RFID and Livestock Marketing

RFID World Livestock Roundup

III: THREATS.

16. RFID: The Doomsday Scenario.

Introduction

RFID Tags and the EPC Code

A Ubiquitous RFID Reader Network

Watching Everything: RFID and the Four Databases It Will Spawn

Corporate Abuse

Government Abuse

Conclusions

17. Multiple Scenarios for Private-Sector Use of RFID.

Introduction

Scenario 1: "No One Wins"

Scenario 2: "Shangri-La"

Scenario 3: "The Wild West"

Scenario 4: "Trust but Verify"

Conclusions

18. Would Macy's Scan Gimbels?: Competitive Intelligence and RFID.

Introduction

In-Store Scenarios

So, Who Wants to Know?

Conclusions

19. Hacking the Prox Card.

Introduction

Reverse-Engineering the Protocol

Security Implications

Protecting Against These Types of Attacks

Conclusions

20. Bluejacked!

Introduction

Bluetooth

Bluetooth Security and Privacy Attacks

Conclusions

IV: TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS.

21. Technological Approaches to the RFID Privacy Problem.

Introduction

The Technical Challenges of RFID Privacy

Blocker Tags

Soft Blocking

Signal-to-Noise Measurement

Tags with Pseudonyms

Corporate Privacy

Technology and Policy

Conclusions

22. Randomization: Another Approach to Robust RFID Security.

Introduction

The Problems in RFID Security

Conclusions

23. Killing, Recoding, and Beyond.

Introduction

RFID Recoding and Infomediaries

Infrastructure Issues

Conclusions

V: STAKEHOLDER PERSPECTIVES.

24. Texas Instruments: Lessons from Successful RFID Applications.

Introduction

Toll Tracking: Who Knows Where You Are Going?

Contactless Payment: Are Safeguards Already in Place?

RFID and Automotive Anti-Theft: Staying Ahead of the Security Curve

How and What We Communicate

Conclusions

25. Gemplus: Smart Cards and Wireless Cards.

Introduction

What Is a Smart Card?

Smart Card Communication and Command Format

Card Life Cycle

Smart Card Applications

"Contactless" Cards

Protocols and Secure Communication Schemes

Constraints of Contactless Products

Contactless Products and the Contact Interface

Conclusions

26. NCR: RFID in Retail.

Introduction

Payment Applications

Inventory Management Applications

Hybrid Scanners

Privacy Concerns

RFID Portal

Conclusions

27. P&G: RFID and Privacy in the Supply Chain.

Introduction

Procter & Gamble's Position

RFID Technology and the Supply Chain

Global Guidelines for EPC Usage

Conclusions

28. Citizens: Getting at Our Real Concerns.

Introduction

Prior to the Point of Sale

After the Point of Sale: Nonconsumer Goods

After the Point of Sale: Consumer Goods

After the Point of Sale: Privacy Interests

Eliminating the RFID Threats to Privacy

Conclusions

29. Activists: Communicating with Consumers, Speaking Truth to Policy Makers.

Introduction

RFID Characteristics That Threaten Privacy

Proposed Technology-Based Solutions

Is Consumer Education the Answer?

Calling for a Technology Assessment

Conclusions

30. Experimenting on Humans Using Alien Technology.

Introduction

The Surveillance Society: It's Already Here

A Trick to Overcome Resistance

Constituents to Change-and to Stasis

Privacy Advocates Own This Story

Privacy, Change, and Language

How to Make Consumers Demand Change (and RFID)

Conclusions

31. Asia: Billions Awaken to RFID.

Introduction

Factors Separating Western and Asian RFID Experience

The Extant Paper Database and Electronic Credit Card Systems

RFID in India

RFID Across Asia

Conclusions

32. Latin America: Wireless Privacy, Corporations, and the Struggle for Development.

Introduction

An Overview of Wireless Services Penetration into Central America

Pervasiveness of Telecommunications in Central America

Privacy Concerns

An Overview of Privacy Across Latin America

Conclusions: Privacy, Poverty, and the Future

APPENDIXES.

Appendix A: Position Statement on the Use of RFID on Consumer Products.

Appendix B: RFID and the Construction of Privacy: Why Mandatory Kill Is Necessary.

Appendix C: Guidelines for Privacy Protection on Electronic Tags of Japan.

Appendix D: Adapting Fair Information Practices to Low-Cost RFID Systems.

Appendix E: Guidelines on EPC for Consumer Products.

Appendix F: Realizing the Mandate: RFID at Wal-Mart.

Index.

Discusses the hottest growth in wireless today--RFID, and its controversial technology, business, and policy issues.

° Radio frequency identification (RFID) is shaping the future of global supply chains, and many companies have asked suppliers to begin using RFID tags by 2006.

° Contains advice from experts with major stakeholders in RFID such as Microsoft, Intel, Procter and Gamble, and Texas Instruments.

° Garfinkel is a noted journalist, author, and computer security/ privacy expert.

Simson Garfinkel is a computer security researcher and an award-winning commentator on information technology. Among his twelve books are Database Nation: The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century (O’Reilly, 2001) and Practical UNIX and Internet Security, Third Edition (O’Reilly, 2003). A columnist for CSO magazine, Garfinkel’s columns earned the 2004 and 2005 Jesse H. Neal National Business Journalism Award. He recently received his Ph.D. in computer science from MIT.

Beth Rosenberg is a writer, editor, and journalist with fifteen years of experience in emerging technologies. She has written for the Boston Globe, Boston magazine, and the Christian Science Monitor, and edited a book for Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government.



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