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Whatever his/her feeling about grades, nearly every teacher must give them. That's the rationale behind this straightforward text–helping prospective teachers to understand grading and learn to do it well. Grading, Second Edition continues to be the resource staying true to its original intent–to help current and future teachers begin to see themselves as competent graders. The text focuses on explaining how grades function in schools and schooling, and on developing skills in grading work and creating report cards. Based on current research and informed by the author's experience, the text is replete with detailed explanations, stories and illustrations, student work samples, sample report cards and other school artifacts, and references for further study. Readers will be introduced to the historical, social, legal, and psychological contexts of grading, and will obtain the necessary content and practice on how to grade individual units of student work and techniques for turning discrete grades into report-card marks. Every major section of the book concludes with a more comprehensive assignment that will help readers assess their knowledge of the major concepts and applications recently studied. Every chapter ends with a set of questions or exercises that serve as a self-assessment tools and a means to practice skill development. Organized into three major parts (Understanding Grading, Integrating Assessment and Instruction, and Combining Grades Into Marks for Report Cards), with the added encouragement of self-reflection at the onset and throughout, Grading, Second Edition fully prepares current teachers and those working toward that goal to refine and perfect a simple, yet compelling function in the process of school, grading. Grading, Second Edition is a perfect supplement for pre-service and current teachers, and for use in General K—12 Methods courses and courses in Tests and Measurements.
PART 1 UNDERSTANDING GRADING
Chapter 1 Introduction
Purposes for Grading
Definitions of Terms
Self-Reflection: Now and Later
Chapter 2 Grading in Its Contexts
The Historical Context of Grading
Current Context of Grading
Social Context of Grading
Legal Context of Grading
Chapter 3 The Educational Psychology of Grading
Influence of Grading Practices on Motivation to Learn
Functions of Feedback to Students
The Classroom Assessment Environment
PART 2 INTEGRATING ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUCTION
Chapter 4 Designing Assessments That Reflect Intentions for Learning
Matching Assessment and Instruction
Novel Applications are Required to Tap Higher Order Thinking
Scoring Is Part of the Match
Chapter 5 Deciding on the Bases for Grading
Formative and Summative Evaluation
Bases for Grading
Kinds of Grading Schemes
Assessment Versus Grading
Chapter 6 Providing Grades and Other Feedback to Students
Providing Informative Feedback
Student Involvement in Assessment
Grading Is a Skill
Grading Projects, Term Papers, and Written Reports
PART 3 COMBINING GRADES INTO MARKS FOR REPORT CARDS
Chapter 7 Grading Policies and Formats
Grades Should Reflect Achievement
Report Card Formats
Self-Reflection Is Critical
Chapter 8 Developmental Concerns in Grading
Grading in Special Education
Grading in Early Childhood
Grading in Elementary and Secondary Classrooms
Chapter 9 Developing Skills at Combining Grades into Marks for Report Cards
Arriving at a Categorical Grade
Arriving at a Letter Grade via Rubrics
Arriving at a Letter Grade via Points
Electronic Methods: Gradebook Packages, Web-Based Systems
Chapter 10 Other Ways of Communicating About Student Achievement
Sending Work Home
A Communication Process
Parent-Teacher, Student-Teacher, or Student-Parent-Teacher Conferences
Appendix A Test Blueprints
Appendix B Do's and Don'ts for Writing Good Test Items
Appendix C Alternative Assessment Checklist
Appendix D Key for Sample Papers from Chapter 6
- Numerous samples of K-12 students' work, ready for grading, provide hands-on practice in what the text is teaching–gives readers a genuine feel for assessing and comparing work, and creating a grading paradigm that's comfortable.
- Writing that sounds like that of a teacher, as opposed to sounding overly dense or didactic, speaks to prospective teachers in a “voice” that's appealing and friendlywhich helps demystify the rationale for grading as well as the grading process.
- Emphasis on self-reflection, evident throughout the material, especially at the outset, encourages future teachers to divest themselves of the “baggage” they carry in regard to grading–guides them on the road to developing a productive disposition toward the required task of grading.
- A final chapter on alternative forms of communicating student achievement examines other ways of “assessing” performance, such as portfolios, narratives, parent-teacher conferences, etc., to give readers a broad-based repertoire of skills in the assessment arena.
- A comprehensive assignmentafter each text section assists readers to gauge how well they've integrated major concepts from the previous chapters and allows for them to apply their understanding to exercises that reflect realistic educational situations.
- A Key Concepts listat the start of each chapter sets the stage for chapter content by identifying for readers the core concepts covered in the chapter and presenting a focal point for student attention.
- Questions and Practice Exercises after each chapter help readers assess their understanding of chapter content and constitute handy vehicles for developing practical grading skills.